Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X | SST Class 10 Mind Maps

 Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X | SST Class 10 Mind Maps


Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X [1 THE RISE OF NATIONALISM IN EUROPE [1 unit - 1 chapter - 1 The Rise of nationalism in europe To know about more useful books for class-10 click here

2 ] Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X nationalism in india [ 27 unit - 1 chapter - 2 nationalism in india To know about more useful books for class-10 click here
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Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X [3 THE MAKING OF A GLOBAL WORLD [ 57 unit - 1 chapter - 3 the making of a global world To know about more useful books for class-10 click here

Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X | SST Class 10 Mind Maps

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4 ] Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X THE AGE OF INDUSTRIALIZATION [ 79 unit - 1 chapter - 4 the age of industrialization To know about more useful books for class-10 click here

Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X [5 98 ] OSWAAL CBSE Chapterwise & Topicwise Question Bank, Social Science, Class – X unit - 1 chapter - 5 print culture and the modern world To know about more useful books for class-10 click here

6 ] Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X resources and development [ 133 unit - 2 chapter - 1 resources and development To know about more useful books for class-10 click here
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Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X [7 150 ] OSWAAL CBSE Chapterwise & Topicwise Question Bank, Social Science, Class – X unit - 2 chapter - 2 agriculture To know about more useful books for class-10 click here

8 ] Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X MINERALS AND ENERGY RESOURCES [ 167 unit - 2 chapter - 3 minerals and energy resources To know about more useful books for class-10 click here

Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X [9 manufacturing industries [ 187 unit - 2 chapter - 4 manufacturing industries To know about more useful books for class-10 click here

10 ] Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X LIFELINES OF NATIONAL ECONOMY [ 211 unit - 2 chapter - 5 lifelines of national economy To know about more useful books for class-10 click here

To know about more useful books for class-10 click here unit - 3 chapter - 1 power sharing Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X For accommodating the interests 246 ] of the minority and the majority, Belgium adopted a unique system of power sharing. Brussels has a separate Power sharing is the very spirit government in which both the communities (French and Dutch) of democracy. 

Belgium is a small country in Europe. have equal representation. A 'community government' exists. In the capital city Brussels, 80% people speak French, It is elected by people belonging to one language community. This government engages with the cultural, educational while the rest speak Dutch. and language related issues. Belgium and Sri Lanka Accommodation in Belgium Power-Sharing OSWAAL CBSE Chapterwise & Topicwise Question Bank, Social Science, Class – X Majoritarianism in Sri Lanka Why power sharing is desirable? 

Forms of power-sharing Sri Lanka has a diverse population with 74% Sinhala speakers and 18% Tamil Power sharing helps to reduce Power is shared among different organs speakers. Among Tamils, 13% are called ‘Sri Lankan the possibility of conflict between social groups and of government, such as the legislature, executive and judiciary. Tamils’ and the rest ‘Indian Tamils’. In 1956, Sinhala was brings about stability in political order. An intelligent Ministers and government officials exercise power. 

Power may also be recognised as the only official language of Sri Lanka, thus shared among different social groups such as the religious and linguistic sharing of power among legislature, executive disregarding Tamil. By 1980s, several political and judiciary is very important to the groups. In a democracy, the citizens must have freedom to organizations were formed demanding an independent design of a democracy. choose among various contenders for power. Tamil Eelam (state) in northern and eastern parts of Sri Lanka. [ 11

To know about more useful books for class-10 click here unit - 3 chapter - 2 federalism 12 ] Federalism is a system of government 260 ] in which the power is divided between a central authority Linguistic States and various constituent units of the country. Different tiers of In 1947, the boundaries of several government govern the same citizens, but each tier has its own old States of India were changed in order to JURISDICTION. 

The fundamental provisions of the Constitution create new States. This was done to ensure cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government. that people who spoke the same language Lived in the same State. Some States were created on the Sources of revenue for each level of government bases of culture, ethnicity or geography. are clearly specified. Language policy What is federalism? Hindi was identified as the official language. There are 21 How is federalism practised? other languages recognised as Scheduled Languages by the Constitution. The Central Federalism What makes India a federal country? Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X Government responded by agreeing to OSWAAL CBSE Chapterwise & Topicwise Question Bank, Social Science, Class – X continue the use of English along with Decentralisation in India 

The Constitution clearly provided Hindi for official purposes. a threefold distribution of legislative powers between In 1992, the Constitution was amended the Union Government and the State Governments. Union Centre-State relations to make the third-tier of democracy more powerful and effective. List includes subjects of national importance such as defence of the After 1990, there was the beginning Seats are reserved for the Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes country, foreign affairs, banking, communications and currency. 

The State of the era of COALITION GOVERNMENTS at the Centre. and Other Backward Classes. The State governments are required to Governments can make laws relating to the subjects mentioned This led to a new culture of power sharing and respect share some powers and revenue with local government bodies. There are in the State List. Concurrent List includes subjects of common for the autonomy of State Governments. Federal power interest to both the Union Governments as well as the State sharing is more effective today than it was in the early years now about 36 lakh elected representatives in after the Constitution came into force. the panchayats, municipalities,etc. Governments, such as education, forest, trade unions, marriage, etc.

To know about more useful books for class-10 click here unit - 3 chapter - 3 gender, religion and caste Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X gender, religion and caste Religious differences Public/private division Many countries including Boys and girls are brought up to India have followers of different religions. believe that the main responsibility of women is Gandhiji used to say that religion can never be household chores and bringing up children. This is reflected in Sexual separated from politics. Women’s movement has Divisions of Labour in most families. 

But in Scandinavian argued that FAMILY LAWS of all religions countries such as Sweden, Norway and Finland, the participation of discriminate against women. women in public life is very high. Ours is still a male-dominated, PATRIARCHAL society and women face disadvantage, discrimination and oppression. Gender and politics Religion, communalism and politics Communalism Gender, Religion and Women’s political representation Communal politics is based on the Caste In India, the proportion ideas that religion is the principal basis of social community. Political mobilization on religious lines is another frequent Caste and politics of women in the legislature has been very low. The percentage of elected women members in Lok Sabha form of communalism. has never reached even 10% of its total strength. 

Secular state There are more than 10 lakh elected women There is no official religion of the representatives in rural and urban Indian state unlike the state religion of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, local bodies. that of Islam in Pakistan and that of Christianity in England. The Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion. Caste in politics Caste inequalities It is not politics that gets caste-ridden; it is the caste Caste system was based on the that gets politicized. New kinds of caste groups have exclusion of and discrimination against the ‘outcaste’ groups. Large scale urbanisation, the growth of come up in the political arena like ‘backward’ and literacy and education and occupational mobility ‘forward’ caste groups. are breaking down the old notions of caste hierarchy. [ 13 [ 277

To know about more useful books for class-10 click here unit - 3 chapter - 4 political parties 14 ] Every party in the country has to register with Meaning political parties the Election Commission. Parties that get this privilege A political party is a group of people who and some other special facilities are ‘recognised’ by the Election Why do we come together to contest elections and hold power in the Commission for this purpose. That is why these parties are called, need political parties? government. A political party has three components, i.e., the ‘recognised political parties’.

 There were six national leaders, the active members and the followers. recognised parties in the country in 2006. Functions Parties contest elections. National political parties In most democracies, elections are fought mainly among the candidates put up by political parties. Parties have lakhs of members and activists spread all over the country. Laws are debated and passed in the legislature. State parties Political Parties Necessity Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X 

The rise of political parties is Most of the major parties of the country directly linked to the emergence of representative [ 295 are classified by the Election Commission as ‘State democracies. Large scale societies need parties’. Parties like the Samajwadi party, Samata party representative democracies. and Rashtriya Janta Dal have nationa level political How many organization with units in several states. parties should we have? Challenges How can parties be reformed? to political parties The Constitution was amended to prevent More than 750 parties are registered 
(I) Lack of internal democracy within parties. elected MLAs and MPs from changing parties. This was with the Election Commission of India. When several 
(ii) Challenge of dynastic succession. done because many elected representatives were indulging in parties in a multi-party system join hands for the purpose of contesting elections and winning power, it is called 
(iii) The growing role of money and muscle power in parties, defection in order to become ministers or especially during elections. for cash rewards. an alliance or a front. 
(iv) Often parties do not seem to offer a meaningful choice to the voters.

To know about more useful books for class-10 click here unit - 3 chapter - 5 outcomes of democracy Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X Democracies are based on political equality. All Democracy is the better form of government 318 ] individuals have equal weight in electing representatives. In when compared with dictatorship or any other alternative, actual life, democracies do not appear to be very successful in because it allows equality among citizens; 

enhances the dignity reducing economic inequalities. A small number of ultra-rich of the individual; improves the quality of decision – making; enjoy a highly disproportionate share provides a method to resolve conflicts; and of wealth and incomes. allows room to correct mistakes. Reduction of How do we assess inequality and poverty democracy’s outcomes? Accommodation of Outcomes Accountable, responsive OSWAAL CBSE Chapterwise & Topicwise Question Bank, Social Science, 

Class – X social diversity of Democracy and legitimate government No society can fully and permanently resolve conflicts Democracy produces a government that is accountable among different groups. Ability to handle social differences, to the citizens, and responsive to the needs and expectations of divisions, and conflicts is thus a definite plus point of democratic the citizens. The democratic government is the legitimate government. But democratic governments do not have a very good record when regimes. It is also necessary that rule by majority does not become rule by majority community in terms it comes to sharing information with citizens. of religion or race or linguistic groups. 

Dignity and freedom Economic growth and of citizens development Democracy stands much superior to any other If you consider all democracies and all dictatorships for [ 15 form of government in promoting dignity and freedom of the fifty years between 1950 and 2000, dictatorships have slightly higher individual. 

Democracy in India has strengthened the claims of the disadvantaged rate of economic growth. But this alone cannot be the reason to reject democracy. and discriminated castes for equal status and equal opportunity. As The difference in the rates of economic development between less developed people get some benefits of democracy, they ask for more and countries with dictatorships and democracies is negligible. want to make democracy even better.

To know about more useful books for class-10 click here unit - 4 chapter - 1 development 16 ] Let us compare the per capita income of Haryana, People seek things that are most important 342 ] Kerala, and Bihar. Haryana has the highest per capita income for them, i.e., that which can fulfill their aspirations and Bihar is at the bottom So, if per capita income were to be used or desires. So two things are quite clear, 

one– different as the measure of development, Haryana will be considered persons can have different developmental goals. Two– what may be development for one may not be development for the the most developed state of the three. other. It may even be destructive for the other. Income and Other Criteria What Development Promises- Different People, Different Goals Money in your pocket can buy Public Facilities What people desire are regular work, Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X all the goods and services that you better wages and decent price for their crops or OSWAAL CBSE Chapterwise & Topicwise Question Bank, Social Science, Class – X may need to live well. 

But your money Development other products that they produce. People also seek things like equal treatment, freedom, security, cannot buy a pollution-free and respect for others. Similarly, for development, environment unless you can afford people look at a mix of goals. to shift to a community. Income and other Goals Development of an individual in such a way that Human development he is able to earn and fulfill his materialistic desires. Sustainability of developments How to Compare Different National Development Countries or States? Since the second half of the 20th century, a number of scientists have been warning that the present type, and levels, The income of the country is the income of all the residents It is very important to keep of development are not sustainable. 

Resources are replenished by of the country. For comparison between countries, total income is not such in mind that different persons could have different as well as conflicting notions of a country’s nature as in the case of crops and plants. Sustainability of a useful measure. The average income is also called Per Capita Income. development. National development means thinking developments is comparatively a new area of knowledge India comes in the category of low middle income countries because about fair and just path for all, whether in which scientists, economists, philosophers and its per capita income in 2017 was just US$ 1820 per annum. there is a better way other social scientists are working together. of doing things.

To know about more useful books for class-10 click here unit - 4 chapter - 2 sector of the indian economy Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X SECTORS OF THE INDIAN ECONOMY The same study by the Planning Commission says that if The sector that covers activities in which natural tourism as a sector is improved, every year we can give additional products are changed into other forms through ways of employment to more than 5 lakh people. Under MGNREGA 2005, all those manufacturing that we associate with industrial activity. There who are able to, and are in need of work are guaranteed 100 days of are activities that help in the development of the primary and the secondary sector are called Tertiary Sector. 

Since these employment in a year by the government. activities generate services rather than goods, the tertiary sector is also called the Service Sector. The organised sector covers those places How to Create More Sectors of economic The various production activities in of work where the terms of employment are Employment? activities regular and therefore, people have assured work. It is called Organized. The Unorganized the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors sector is characterized by small and scattered Division of sectors as produce a very large number of goods and services. units. Employment is not secure. Intermediate goods are used up in producing final organised and unorganized goods and services. The sum of production in the three sectors gives what is calle In the rural areas, 

the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) unorganized sector mostly comprises of the country. of landless agriculture labourers, small and marginal farmers, sharecroppers and artisans. Sectors of Comparing In the urban areas, unorganized sector comprises the Indian Economy the Three Sectors mainly of workers in the small-scale industry, casual workers in the construction, trade and transport etc. Rising Importance of the Tertiary Sector in Production How to Protect Workers Over the 40 years between 1971-72 and 2011-12, while production in the Unorganized Sector? in all the three sectors has increased, it has increased the most in the tertiary sector. Reason being Primary, Secondary 
(i) In any country several services such as hospitals, educational institutions, etc., are required. and Tertiary Sectors in India 
(ii) The development of agriculture and industry leads to the development Sectors in Terms Of Ownership: of services such as transport, trade and storage. Public and Private Sectors 
(iii) As income levels rise, certain sections of people start demanding like eating out, tourism, shopping, etc. 
(iv) Over the past decade, certain new services such as IT, BPO, KPO have Where are most of the people employed? become important and essential. In the private sector, ownership of assets and More than half of the workers in the country 

[ 17 delivery of services is in the hands of private individuals are working in the primary sector, mainly in agriculture, producing only a quarter of the GDP. The secondary and [ 361 or companies. Collecting the money from thousands tertiary sectors produce three-fourth of the produce of people who use these facilities is not easy. whereas they employ less than half the people.

To know about more useful books for class-10 click here unit -4 chapter - 3 money and credit 18 ] In a barter system where goods are directly exchanged without Currency 384 ] the use of money, the double coincidence of wants is an essential feature. 

Before the introduction of coins, a variety of objects were used as money. For example, since the very early ages, Indians used Money acts as an intermediate in the exchange process, it is called a grains and cattle as money. Modern forms of money include currency medium of exchange. – paper notes and coins. In India, the Reserve Bank of India issues currency notes on behalf of the central government. Banks keep only a small proportion of Money as a medium Modern forms of money their deposits as cash with themselves and use of exchange the major portion of the deposits to extend loans. Deposits with Bank Banks charge a higher interest rate on loans than Loan activities of Banks accept the deposits and also pay an amount what they offer on deposits. The difference between banks as interest on the deposits.The modern forms of money – 

what is charged from borrowers and what is paid currency and deposits – are closely linked to the working to depositors is their main source of income. of the modern banking system. Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X Every loan agreement specifies an interest Money and Credit OSWAAL CBSE Chapterwise & Topicwise Question Bank, Social Science, Class – X rate which the borrower must pay to the lender along with the repayment of the principal addition; lenders Terms of Credit Formal sector credit may demand collateral against the loan. The interest in India Self-help groups for rate, collateral and documentation requirement, the poor and the mode of repayment together comprise what is called the Terms of Credit. The moneylenders charge very high rates of interest, Formal and Informal The various types of loans can be conveniently keep no records of the transactions and harass the poor borrower. Credit: Who gets what ? grouped as formal sector and informal sector loans. 

The idea is to organise rural poor, in particular women, into small Self The informal lenders include moneylenders, traders, Help Groups (SHGs) and pool (collect) their savings. A typical SHG 85% of the loans taken by poor households in the urban employers, relatives and friends, etc. The Reserve areas are from informal sources. Urban households take only 10% has 15-20 members, usually belonging to one neighbourhood, of their loans from informal sources, while 90% are from formal sources. Bank of India supervises the functioning of who meet and save regularly. The formal sector still meets only about half of the total credit needs formal sources of loans. of the rural people. The remaining credit needs are met from informal sources.

To know about more useful books for class-10 click here unit - 4 chapter - 4 globalisation and the indian economy Oswaal CBSE Chapterwise & Mind Maps, SOCIAL SCIENCE, Class – X GLOBALISATION AND THE INDIAN ECONOMY Globalization and greater competition among People with education, skill and wealth have producers – both local and foreign producers – has been made the best use of new opportunities. Fair globalisation of advantage to consumers, particularly the well-off sections would create opportunities for all and also ensure that the in the urban areas. Globalization has also created new benefits of globalisation are shared better. opportunities for companies providing services, particularly those involving IT. 

Impact of The struggle for a fair Until the middle of the twentieth globalisation in India globalisation century, production was largely organised within countries. Trade was the main channel connecting World Trade Organization (WTO) is World Trade Organization one such organisation whose aim is to liberalise distant countries. An MNC is a company that international trade. Though WTO is suppose to owns or controls production in allow free trade for all, in practice, it is seen more than one nation. 

that the developed countries have unfairly retained trade barriers. Production across countries Liberalisation of foreign trade Globalisation and the and foreign investment policy Indian Economy The Indian government, after Interlinking production Independence, had put barriers to across countries foreign investment. Removing barriers or restrictions set by the government What is globalisation? In general, MNCs set up production is what is known as liberalisation. where it is close to the markets; where Foreign trade and there is skilled and unskilled labour available at low Factors that have enabled integration of markets costs; and where the availability of other factors globalisation of production is assured. 

MNCs can provide money for additional investments, like buying new machines for faster production. Rapid improvement in technology has been a Globalization is this process of rapid Foreign trade creates an opportunity for the major factor that has stimulated the globalization integration or interconnection between countries. producers to reach beyond the domestic markets. For the process. Technologies in the areas of telecommunications, MNCs are playing a major role in the globalization process. buyers, import of goods produced in another country is one way computers, and internet have been changing rapidly. More and more goods and services, investments and of expanding the choice of goods beyond what is technology are moving between countries. domestically produced. [ 19 [ 403
Nirbhay Singh

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