Maharashtra board 9th std English kumar bharti solutions Unit 3

 Maharashtra board 9th std English kumar bharti solutions

Unit 3

Maharashtra board 9th std English kumar bharti solutions Unit 3


 3.1 Silver 

Textbook Questions and Answers

Warming Up:

Imagine that your class has to be divided into groups or houses. Each house will have their own colour, symbol/emblem, motto, dress code, a common room with objects of their interest and suitable furniture. Think of sets of four names for the groups. Form groups and work out the (imaginary) details for each set. Some suggestions are : Neem – Colour, yellow; Symbol, the sun; Motto, ‘Health is wealth’; Dress code, yellow waist belt; etc. Cane furniture, green and yellow curtains and herbariums in the common room.

Example:

House name – Banyan

Colour – Green

Symbol – the Moon

Flower – Sunflower

Season – Summer

Metal – Copper

Dress Code – Scarf with ‘Save the Environment’ slogan on it

Special interests – Activities dealing with Environmental Pollution

Motto – Save the Environment.

2. Read the lines of the following poem. Guess and fill in suitable words to make the lines rhyme:

Golden Glow:

Soon after dawn, rises the sun;

It wakes and enlivens every one.

It scares away the long, dark night.

The shining stars go out of sight.

From tree to tree birds flit and fly.

Searching for food, with a sharp eye.

The buds that open now show their colour,

As flowers they dance with beauty and splendour.

The hill slope wears a grassy green dress,

The curved sparkling river, it gold possess.

The cock then crows to give a loud call,

Come on! wake up, folks! One and all.

I, then wake up, ‘Good Morning’ to say,

Let’s all look forward to a golden day.

English Workshop:

If you were asked to draw a detailed picture of the scene described in the poem, what objects, animals, natural features, etc. will you show in the picture? Make a list.

I would show the following in my picture : moon, trees, fruits, the night sky, a house with a thatched roof, a dog in a kennel, doves in their dovecotes, a mouse, a stream, fish and reeds.

Write the rhyming words and rhyme scheme of the poem.

Rhyming words are : moon – shoon, sees – trees, catch – thatch, log – dog, peep – sleep, by – eye, gleam – stream. The rhyme scheme is aa, bb, cc, and so on in rhyming couplets.

Underline the word silver/silvery in the poem. In what lines does it occur? What pattern S does it show?

The word silver/silvery occurs in the second | line of every couplet. It shows a pattern of repetition for pleasing effect. (A couplet is a pair of successive lines of verse, which are usually of the same length, and rhyme.)

Can you think of a parallel scene of dawn or evening when everything is steeped in golden light?

Yes, I can think of a seaside scene, with the setting sun throwing golden light over everything.

The same landscape appears different at different times. What message can we draw from this?

The landscape changes according to the light from the sky. In this poem, the poet makes us look at ordinary moonlight in a different way. The message we can draw from this is how, in different situations, we might perceive the same scene completely differently.

Read ‘The Listeners’ and ‘Someone’ – poems by Walter de la Mare.

Which of the objects, animals, etc. mentioned in the poem are at rest without any motion?

1. The objects that are at rest without any motion : trees, casements, thatch, kennel, cote, water.

2. The animals that are at rest without any motion : dog, doves, fish.

How has the harvest mouse been described?

The moonlight reflects on the eye and claws of the harvest mouse, making them look silvery. The mouse is running somewhere quickly.

How has the poet described the scene near the stream?

The stream is gleaming with silver light. The fish in the stream are motionless and shining. There are silver reeds near the stream.

The poet has described a countryside scene. What tells you this?

The poet talks about the moonlight falling on fruits, trees, thatched houses, a dog in the kennel, doves, a harvest mouse, reeds and streams with fish. All this will be present only in the countryside and not in cities.

Explain the figure of speech ‘Personification’ in the first two lines.

In these lines, the moon is personified. She is i given the human quality of walking in her silver shoes.

Give one example of Alliteration from the poem.

‘By silver reeds in a silver stream.’ The sound of the letter ‘s’ is repeated.

Appreciation of Poem.

Note: The point format given in Appreciation of Poem is for easy understanding. However, it is to be written in the form of a paragraph in the examination.

Point Format(for understanding).

Title: Silver

Poet: Walter de la Mare

Rhyme Scheme: aa, bb, and so on (rhyming couplets).

Figures of Speech: Personification. ‘This way and that she peers and sees’. The moon is given the human quality of peering this way and that. The other figures of speech are Alliteration and Repetition.

Theme/Central idea: The poet describes the magical effects of the silvery moonlight on the countryside at night, and shows a beautiful and | peaceful scene of the countryside at night under the moonlight.

Maharashtra Board Class 9 English Kumarbharati Solutions Chapter 3.1 Silver

Paragraph Format:

The poem ‘Silver’ is written by Walter de la Mare.

The rhyme scheme is aa, bb and so on. The poem is in rhyming couplets, i.e., two lines rhyming with each other. Personification is a Figure of Speech used by the poet: ‘This way and that she peers and sees’. The moon is given the human quality of peering this way and that. The other figures of speech are Alliteration and Repetition.

 3.2 Reading Works of Art

 Textbook Questions and Answers

Complete the following idioms using the appropriate colour term. (blue, black, green, red)

give someone a ……….. look (a look of anger. dislike, etc.)

the ……….. sheep (of the family a person who brings disgrace to the family)

a …………. list (a list of defaulters)

a ………….. belt (area of fields, woods. etc. around a city)

to have ……………. fingers (be good at gardening)

be ………….. with envy (feel very jealous)

give someone/get the signal (give/get pemilssion to do something)

a bolt from the ………….. (a sudden shock. surprise)

out of the ………….. (suddenly. unexpectedly)

once in a ……………. moon (very rarely)

vanish into the …………… (leave without any trace)

………….. blood (royal blood. aristocratic origin)

…………. eyed boy (favourite person)

catch someone …………. handed (catch someone in the act of doing something wrong)

roll out the ……………. carpet (give a special welcome)

a …………….. herring (something that diverts attention from the main issue)

see …………… (become angry)

Answer:

give someone a black look.

out of the blue

the black sheep (of the family)

once in a blue moon

a black list

vanish into the blue

a green belt

blue blood

to have green fingers

a blue-eyed boy

be green with envy

catch someone red-handed

give someone/get the green signal

roll out the red carpet

a bolt from the blue

a red herring

see red

What are you reminded of when you think of the following colours.

purple – royalty

orange – fire

yellow – the sun

pink – sweetness

white – purity

1. Spot the error in the spelling of these words with reference to the passage and rewrite them correctly.

renouned

geomatric

feetures

figars

circals

acheiving

Answer:

renowned

geometric

features

figures

circles

achieving

Complete the following with reference to the passage:

(a) Raza’s paintings do not depict ………….. .

(b) Raza’s paintings are done in the ……….. style.

(c) Raza’s paintings are not inspired by …………… .

(d) Raza’s paintings present images from his own …………. .

(e) Raza’s paintings radiate ……………… .

(f) The ……………. became the core of Raza’s paintings.

(g) For an artist like Raza. his work, or paintings are an effective ……………… .

Answer:

(a) Raza’s paintings do not depict lifelike human figures or copies of scenes from his environment.

(b) Raza’s paintings are done in the abstract style.

(c) Raza’s paintings are not inspired by any external factor.

(d) Raza’s paintings present images from his own inner mind.

(e) Raza’s paintings radiate peace and life at the same time.

5. Write about the important features of Gond art with reference to the passage.

Gond art involves natural techniques of preparing colours and the use of several mediums. They are transferred from generation to generation in a smoothly flowing process. It is a medium of j recording and preserving what is seen.

6. Why does the author think that the roots of folk art lies in women’s chores?

Natural colours available in various things around the house are used in Gond art. The pictures drawn are lively and attractive and depict simple things. The different colours, various textures and patterns were used year after year. The pictures were drawn on the walls of the home earlier. All this makes the author think that the roots of folk art lies in women’s chores.

7. From the passage, list the words related to:

(b) colours

(c) designs

Answer:

(b) colours – blue, orange, colour combinations.

(c) designs – abstract, scenes, geometric.

8. These two passages are examples of a short introduction to works of art a short review. They cover the following points:

The creator

The theme or subject matter

Type of ail

Individual style tÐ1tjf

Presentation techniques SIlO 3DF

Its effect on viewers

Message or interpretation

Compare the points with those you used for a book review and the review of a play. Present the comparison in the form of a chart.

Book Review Review of a Play Review of a Painting

1. Title of the book Name of the play/skit The name of the artist

2. Author / Authors Important characters The theme or subject matter

3. Genre/category of the book Any famous actors/actresses Type of art

4. Target group written for Theme Individual style

5. Setting and time of the story Climax Presentation techniques

6. Central idea of the story Ending Its effect on viewers

7. Important characters Use of lights and special effects if any Medium – e.g. oil on canvas

8. Style of writing Use of background music and sound effects if any Message / Interpretation

9. Some special features The costumes, make up, etc. of the characters Colour composition

10. Publisher, year of publication How well the actors present the play and behave on the stage? Texture / Strokes

11. Your own opinion Your own opinion about the play. Your opinion

Using the Information given in the passage, write a short note on the following in your mother tongue:

(a) The paintings of Raza

(b) Gond art.

(Students may attempt this In their notebook.)

Gather Information on any of the following by talking to your elders, family members and from other sources in your mother tongue and write a short note on it in English.

a special type of embroidery

a special dish that is prepared on a special occasion at home.

something that you use to decorate your home on special occasions.

Read the following from the Language Study pages:

adjective clause

adverb clause

noun clause.

Find an example of each of the following i from the passage and underline the linking words:

Answer:

1. My work is my own inner experience and Involvement with the mysteries of nature and form which is expressed In colour, line, space and light. which Is expressed in colour, line, space and light – Adjective clause

2. They originate when the artist tries to peep into his own inner mind. when the artist tries to peep into his own inner mind – adverb clause.

3. We realize that the painting is a visible form of very deep thought that the painting is a visible form of very deep thought – noun clause.

His pictures seem to radiate peace and life. (Rewrite, beginning with ‘Peace and life’ …)

Peace and life seem to be radiated from his pictures.

Do you like to draw and paint? Elaborate on your answer.

Yes, I do. I go to a drawing class regularly and my teacher says I am quite good at it. I also participate in drawing competitions and have won many prizes.

‘Complete the following with reference to the passage: (The answers are given directly and underlined.)

The ‘bindu’ or point became the core of Raza’s paintings.

For an artist like Raza, his work, or paintings, are an effective medium of communication.

Raza was born in a small village in Madhya pradesh.

Raza won many national & international awards.

Name some of the awards won by Raza.

Raza was honoured with the Padma Shri, the Padma Bhushan and the Padma Vibhushan

How did the artist himself describe his work?

Raza described his work in these words: My work is my own inner experience and involvement with the mysteries of nature and form which is expressed in colour, line, space and light.

Spot the error in the spelling of these words with reference to the passage and correct them :

penting

vilage

innar

dicided

Answer:

painting

village

inner

decided.

Find an example of each of the following from the passage and underline the linking words :

adverb clause

Answer:

Sometimes, an artist’s thoughts appear to be too complex or even complicated when they are expressed through words. when they are expressed through words – adverb clause.

Join the sentences using ‘not only … but also …’ Raza had great creativity. His paintings are very expressive.

Raza not only had great creativity but his paintings are also very expressive.

Personal Response.

What is your opinion about abstract art?

I do not understand abstract art. I prefer paintings of animals and natural scenes. However, I am sure abstract art is also very great. One has to learn to understand it.

Write if the following sentences are True or False: (The answers are given directly and underlined.)

The Gond language is similar to Tamil – False

Gond art has spread mainly in North India – False

Gond art is a tribal art – 

True

Gonds have been residing in India for thousands of years – 

True

Spot the error in the spelling of these words with reference to the passage and correct them:

mediam

tribel

mithology

erthen

Answer:

medium

tribal

mythology

earthen.

Write the noun forms of the following:

developed – development

preserved – preservation

similar – similarity

pleasant – pleasantness.

Find two examples of noun clauses from the passage and underline the linking words :

1. We learn that they have lived in India for thousands of years.

that they have lived in India for thousands of years – noun clause

2. Art is a medium of recording and preserving what is seen.

what is seen – noun clause

Frame a Wh question to get the underlined part as the answer:

It has been developed and preserved by the Gond tribal people.

By whom has it been developed and preserved? OR Who has developed and preserved it?

‘A house decorated with beautiful pictures creates a pleasant atmosphere’. Do you agree with this? Explain your answer.

Yes, I agree with this statement. In my house, there are many paintings of beautiful scenes. When you look at these paintings of nature, you feel soothed and happy. However, I feel this is true only with those people who love art.

Write about the important features of Gond art with reference to the passage.

Natural colours available in various things around the house are used in Gond art. The different colours, various textures and patterns were used year after year. The outlines may vary a little from artist to artist, but the pictures are lively and attractive. The designs include simple textures using dots, straight lines, dotted lines, curvy shapes and circles. Special attention is given to the choice of colours.

Spot the error in the spelling of the following words with reference to the passage and rewrite them correctly:

diffarent

stright

amasing

decorateing

Answer:

different

straight

amazing

decorating.

From the passage, list the words related to:

1. colours

2. designs

Answer:

1. colours – colours, shades.

2. designs – patterns, Gond styles.

Find an example of each of the following from the passage and underline the linking words :

1. noun clause

2. adverb clause

Answer:

1. We realize that a picture drawn this way or the other can look equally beautiful.

that a picture drawn this way or the other can look equally beautiful. – noun clause

2. Special attention is given to the choice of various colours so that the total effect is amazing and beautiful. so that the total effect is amazing and beautiful – adverb clause

The designs include simple textures. (Rewrite using the noun form of the underlined word.)

There is an inclusion of simple textures in the designs.

Write two compound words of your own.

lifelike, coastline

Make a meaningful sentence using the phrase ‘at the same time’.

It is not possible to be at two different places at the same time.

Spot the error and correct the sentence: Art are a medium of recording and preserving what is seen.

Art is a medium of recording and preserving what is seen.

Pick out the gerund from the given sentence:

The roots of folk arts lie in women’s chores like cleaning.

cleaning – gerund.

Identify the type of sentence: What a deep thought it conveys!

Exclamatory sentence

Find out two hidden words from the word ‘complicated’.

complicated-complicate, clamp (leapt, pleat).

Form a present participle in which the last i letter is doubled.

run-running

Arrange the following in Alphabetical order:

colour, composition, combination, captivating.

captivating, colour, combination, composition.

Make a word chain of verbs starting with : the following verb:

reward →

reward → disappear → remain notice → empathize

He won many awards.

(Change the voice beginning ‘Many ….’)

Many awards were won by him.

He studied art at Nagpur. (Use the past | perfect continuous tense of the verb.)

He had been studying art at Nagpur.

Prepare a word register for ‘geometry’ with words from the lesson.

geometry – shapes, circles, triangles, squares, rectangles, lines, dots, straight lines, dotted lines, curvy slopes, circles, point, bindu, space.

Use the following word as a verb and a noun in two separate sentences : draw

(a) The match ended in a draw. (noun)

(b) The teacher asked the children to draw a monkey. (verb)

We see that the outlines may vary a little. (Pick out the modal and state the function.)

may – possibility

3.3 The Road Not Taken

 Textbook Questions and Answers

Warming Up:

1. After your SSC Exams/Result you may have to take a decision regarding the choice of a career. What factors will you consider? Choose from the block below and complete the web-diagram.

Is the option easy/difficult?
Your capability
Your likes/dislikes
Friends’ decision
Parents’ profession
Your skills/inborn talents
Study the ‘Job Profile’ carefully
Easy money
Possible difficulties
Your ultimate aim

2. Form pairs or groups of four. Think of the situations when you have to choose between two things. Make a list of those situations. Then:

Discuss how to decide what to choose.

Points: ask parents – teachers – read articles – speak to others – think carefully, etc.

Write what you feel when your decision proves right.

Points: happy – confident, etc.

Write what you feel when you regret the decision.
Answer:
Points: unhappy – depressed – courageous, loss of confidence, etc.)

English Workshop:

1. Read the poem again. Does it have a uniform rhyme scheme throughout?

Read the poem again. Does it have a uniform rhyme scheme throughout? Write down the rhyme scheme of every stanza separately.

1st stanza ……………….
2nd stanza ……………..
3rd stanza ………………
4th stanza …………….

Answer:

1st stanza – abaab
2nd stanza – abaab
3rd stanza – abaab
4th stanza – abaab

2. Write the symbols that are used in the poem to represent the following ideas:

a. Choice of two options ………………….
b. I made a rare choice ……………………
c. Equally good options ……………………
d. It was tempting and needed to be tried …………….
e. Some other time ……………………

Answer:

a. Choice of two options: two roads diverged.
b. I made a rare choice: I took the one less travelled by.
c. Equally good options: just as fair.
d. It was tempting and needed to be tried: It was grassy and wanted wear.
e. Some other time: Another day.

3. Rearrange the following facts in the proper order and fill in the flow chart.

a. He chooses the one barely travelled.
b. Choosing the lesser-used road has made a great difference.
c. He observed one, as far as he could.
d. The traveller came to a fork in the road.
e. He planned to travel along the previous one some other time.

4. Think and write in your own words.

In which season does a greenwood turn j to a yellow wood? Which stage in our life can be compared to that season?

A greenwood turns to a yellow wood in j autumn. The stage in our life that can be compared to that season is middle age.

Why does the traveller choose the road less travelled? What attribute of the traveller does it bring out?

The traveller chooses the road less travelled because it seemed just as good as the other one and I felt it needed to be used. The traveller seems to be adventurous. He has an independent mind and does not want to follow what others have done.

Why does the traveller doubt that he shall ever come back?

The traveller feels that he will be so busy in his life with one thing leading to another, that he may not be ever able to come back.

If you were in the traveller’s place, which road would you choose? Justify your choice.

If I were in the traveller’s place, I would choose the road that was more travelled. I would not want to go on a strange road which many have not travelled by. I am not adventurous. I feel that there is safety in doing what others are doing or have done.

5. From any collection of classic poetry or the internet, find another famous poem by Robert Frost titled ‘Stopping by the Woods on a Snowy Evening’. Try to understand the symbolism used in that poem in 8-10 lines.

6. Write a letter to your friend or cousin telling him/her about a difficult choice you have recently made.

Flat No. 3
‘Maria Mansion’
Pereira Nagar
Mahim 400 016
5th July 2020

Dear Sandeep,

Hi! How are you? I tried calling you, but your number : seems to have changed. Do let me have your new number.

Last week I had to make a rather difficult choice. I | had to choose between football and my studies. No guesses which one I chose – my studies, of course! I have made up my mind to give up football for the next two years. I will play in friendly, casual matches, j but nothing serious. I will also stop my regular daily I practice.

It’s been a very difficult decision to make, but then I j remembered what you had done. You too had given up cricket for two years, hadn’t you? And then you I picked up the threads again in college, when you had j more time. This is what has inspired me to make my j decision. Thanks, Sandy.

Will tell you more details when I meet you next.

Your loving friend,
Deep

Collect quotations on the topic ‘Choice’.

‘Decisions are the hardest thing to make, especially when it is a choice between where you should be and where you want to be.’
Present the quotations in a beautiful hand on cardpaper.

State true or false

1. The poet made his decision about which road to take very quickly – False
2. The season was Autumn – True
3. The poet wished he could travel along both the roads – True
4. He took the road which had been used more – False

Why does the poet feel sorry?

The poet feels sorry that he cannot travel along both the roads at the same time.

Did the poet choose the road quickly?

No, the poet did not choose the road quickly, He stood for a long time at the fork before he took a decision.

Was one of the roads better than the other?

No, both were equally good.

Does the poem have a uniform rhyme scheme throughout?

Yes, it does.

Complete the following statements: (The answers are given directly and underlined.)

The poet took the road less travelled by.
He kept the first road for another day.
He will be telling all this ages and ages later.
His choice has made all the difference.

Does the poet tell us what difference it made?

No, he doesn’t.

Pick out and explain an example of inversion from the extract.

Inversion: ‘And both that morning equally lay in leaves ……… . The correct prose order is: And both lay equally that morning in leaves ………. .

Point Format (for understanding)

Title: The Road not Taken
Poet: Robert Frost
Rhyme Scheme: abaab.
Figures of Speech: Alliteration. ‘Though as for that the passing there.’ Repetition of the sound of the letter ‘t’. The other figure of speech is Inversion.
Theme/Central Idea: The poem Is about the journey of life and what the poet decides when he is at the crossroads. He tells us about a time that he came across two roads that diverged In a wood.
He knew that he could not travel both, so he took the road which was not as well-travelled as the other. It made a difference in his life.

Paragraph Format.

This famous poem ‘The Road not Taken’ is by the equally famous poet Robert Frost.

The Rhyme Scheme of the poem is abaab. One Figure of Speech is Alliteration : ‘Though as for that the passing there.’ Repetition of the sound of the letter ‘t’. The other figure of speech is Inversion.

The poem is about the journey of life, and what the poet decides when the path forks off in two directions. He knew that he could not travel both, so he took the road which was not as well-travelled as the other. This made a difference in his life.

 3.4 How the First Letter was Written

  Textbook Questions and Answers

Warming Up:

Write your name in bold capitals.

(a) Now, within 3 minutes try to make as many words as you can using the letters in your name. You cannot use the same letter twice in a word, unless It Is so In your name.

(b) You may use the above Idea to devise a game with your friends.

Answer:

(An example is given below.)

Name: Sandeep Joshi

Words: deep, seep, pane, pain, heap, sheep. etc.

List words from your mother tongue or from Hindi which do not have an exact English equivalent. Try to write their meaning in English.

Now, list at least twenty English words which do not have an exact equivalent in your mother tongue.

Browse the internet to find names of people/ places, etc. in any language that is not familiar to you.

1. Names of people: The name Xi in Chinese is pronounced as ‘she’ and the English name ‘Sean’ is pronounced as ‘Shawn’.

2. Name/es of place/es: The name of a town ‘Muvattupuzhe’ in Kerala is not pronounced the way it is written. The last three letters are pronounced as ‘rh’ with a roll of the tongue. I will get the information from the net or ask people when I want to know the correct pronunciation of names or places.

Read the remaining part of the original story.

How do the following characters in the story live up to their names? Provide points from the story:

Tegumai Bopsulai:

The meaning of Tegumai is Man-who-does- not-put-his-foot-forward-in-a-hurry. He lived up to his name when he showed patience in mending his spear and did not just rush off home or send Taffy back to get another spear. He also did not ask Taffy too many questions about what she had been doing when he was busy repairing his spear, or about her conversation with the Stranger-man. He was patient and cautious.

Taffimai Metallumai:

The meaning of Taffimai is Small-person- without-any-manners-who-ought-to-be-spanked. She lived up to her name in the way in which she ordered the stranger ‘Come here’, stamped her foot and called him silly. She wanted the stranger to do her bidding and she succeeded in it. She pulled off the shark’s tooth from his necklace without his permission. She would not tell her father what she had done and she wanted him to promise to be surprised. This was a silly thing to do but he did it.

Teshumai Tewindrow :

The meaning of Teshumai is Lady-who-asks- very-many-questions. Though she did not ask many questions, she talked and shouted continuously at the poor stranger. She drew wrong conclusions and she spoke continuously to her friends telling them all that she had understood from Taffy’s drawing.

4. The story is written in an informal, colloquial style – the way it would be told orally. Find and write expressions where the author addresses the audience directly in the story. for example, ‘but we, O Best Beloved, will…….’, ‘Now attend and listen!’

> Expression: ‘He did this, Best Beloved’.

5. Write the character sketch of the ‘Stranger- man’ using examples from the story to support the following attributes:

a. ignorant, innocent and polite

b. calm and cool

c. jumps to wrong conclusions

d. hasty and unwise at times

The ‘Stranger-man’ was a very simple and ignorant person. He was so innocent and ignorant that he thought that Tegumai was a great tribal chief merely because he ignored him. He was polite enough to disregard Tegumai’s rudeness in ignoring him. He admired every action of Taffy’s, drawing his own wrong conclusions from them. He did not even object when Taffy pulled the shark’s tooth from his necklace.

He again jumped to wrong conclusions when he saw Taffy’s drawing, and without even waiting to consult Tegumai he rushed off to do Taffy’s bidding. This was very unwise of him, because Taffy’s mother drew her own wrong conclusions from the drawing. He was cool, calm and polite when he met Teshumai, even though he was tired, his legs were scratched with brambles and Teshumai was rude to him.

6. Note the punctuation used in the story. Here, single inverted commas or quotation marks have been used to show conservation. Rewrite the following sentences using double quotation marks:

1. ‘Here’s a pretty kettle of fish!’ said Tegumai.

2. ‘It will take me half the day to mend this.’

Answer:

1. “Here’s a pretty kettle of fish!” said Tegumai.

2. “It will take me half the day to mend this.”

 Underline the main clauses in the following sentences:

(a) And she was Tegumai Bopsulai’s Best Beloved and lier own Mummy’s Best Beloved, and she was not spanked half as much as was good for her, and they were all three very happy.

(b) One-day Tegumai Bopsulai went down through the beaver-swamp to the Wagai river to spear carp-fish for dinner, and Taffy went too.

(c) They were miles and miles from home and Tegumai had forgotten to bring any extra spears.

(d) Just then a Stranger-man came along the river, but he belonged to a far tribe, the Tewaras, and he did not understand one word of Tegumai’s language.

8. Imagine Taffy comes to you for help to write a letter of apology in the modem script we use. She wants to express her regret to the Stranger – man for her mother’s action. Write that letter of apology (informal) on her behalf.

Neolithic Cave

Bopsu Forest

Rassamalai

28th July, 2020

Dear Stranger-man Uncle,

I am Taffy, the girl who gave you the drawing on the birch-bark two days back and sent you to my Mummy with it.

When we reached home that day, Mummy told me j that you had come with the birch-bark. She also told me what she had understood from my drawing, and how she had treated you. I was really horrified.

Stranger-man Uncle, I am really very sorry for what happened to you. I did not know that Mummy would misunderstand my drawing and beat you up. Please i accept my apology. See, I am not spoilt like people say. I am sorry for what happened. I will learn to write j properly so that such things do not happen again.

From a sorry little girl,

Taffy.

 Imagine the Stranger-man narrates how the Neolithic ladies overpowered him. Write an account of the same, making him the narrator.

I reached the cave and saw the little girl’s mother standing there with some other women. I recognized her immediately, for she looked very much like the little girl. Relieved, I handed over the birch-bark to her. I thought that she would immediately call upon the other members of the tribe to go to the Chiefs help but she did nothing of the sort.

She screamed something to the other ladies, and they immediately pounced on me and flattened me. I was caught completely unawares, and thrown onto the ground. Those heavy and strong ladies sat on my back to prevent me from escaping. The little girl’s mother began shouting and pulling my hair. I wonder why they are doing all this, instead of helping their poor Chief?

10. Making suitable groups, convert the entire episode into a short skit and write it down. Each group leader must discuss it with the others and add a different end to the skit:

1. Happy ending

2. Sad ending

3. Surprise ending

4. Humorous ending

(Tegumai Bopsulai accidentally broke his spear while fishing. He had forgotten to bring any extra spears, and mending the broken spear would take him half a day.)

Tegumai Bopsulai: Oh, no! It will take me half a day to mend this!

Taffy: I’ll run back to the cave and ask Mummy to give your big black spear.

Tegumai Bopsulai: It’s too far, daughter, and you may fall into the beaver-swamp. I’ll try to mend this.

(Tegumai settles down to mend the spear. A Stranger-man comes along and Taffy begins to talk to him.)

Taffy: Do you know where my Mummy lives? Oh! I see! You want my Mummy’s living address? Well, I can’t write, but I can draw pictures if I have something sharp. Please lend me the shark’s tooth off, your necklace.

(Taffy pulls at the necklace. The Stranger-man was already in awe of Taffy and afraid of her father. He is even more impressed when she pulls at the shark’s tooth and comes to no harm, for the sharks’ tooth was supposed to be a magic one, which would make the person touching it swell up or burst.)

(The beginning lines have been given. Students can complete the skit in the same format in groups, changing the ending.)

Write a short passage/essay on ‘Women Power’ in the Neolithic, Medieval and Present times.

‘Women Power’ – in Neolithic, Medieval and Present times

The position of women in society and the power they wield has changed through the ages. During the Neolithic Age, women spent their days gathering berries, roots, nuts, etc. They also gathered materials to make pots and weapons. Women stayed on the home front and looked after the children, but were thought to be equal to men. The men hunted and brought home the food. Later on, with the start of agriculture, women also began to farm and weave cloth.

Medieval society, however, was patriarchal, Women were to fall under male control, and regardless of class women had to submit to the male head of her household. Rural women had many domestic responsibilities, like caring for the children, preparing food and tending livestock. They also had to lend a hand in other household activities like grinding, brewing and spinning. During harvest time,, women often helped their husbands in the field to bring in the crops. However, slowly women were increasingly relegated to low-paying tasks like spinning. They suffered a lot of criticism, lacked freedom and stood nowhere next to men.

Today, around the world, women’s status in each society and culture varies. In some societies, women’s status improved gradually, while in other, it has declined or remained unchanged. This is due to the major changes that have taken place in areas such as legislations, education, employment, awareness of their rights on the part of women, etc. In some societies, women have emerged as major political leaders, statesmen, doctors, lawyers, etc. In some places, she is still subjected to inhuman cruelty, sexual exploitation, domestic violence, etc.

12. Read: ‘Just so stories’ and ‘The Jungle Book’ by Rudyard Kipling.

Complete the following statements: (The answers are given directly and underlined.)

Answer:

One-day Tegumai Bopsulai went down through the beaver swamp to the Wagai river.

Tegumai’s spear was made of wood with shark’s teeth at the end.

He accidentally broke it clean across.

Tegumai had forgotten to bring any extra spears.

Who is the author telling the story to?

The author is telling us the story.

Write three things about Tegumal.

Tegumal wore very few clothes. He couldn’t read and write and he lived a happy life, except when he was hungry.

Give one word for the meaning of each of the following names:

Tegurnal Bopsulal

Teshumai Tewindrow

Taffimal Metallumai

Names - Meanings - One word for meanings

1. Tegumai Bopsulai - Man who does not put his foot forward in a hurry - cautious

2. Teshumai Tewindrow - Lady who asks a very many questions - curious/ inquisitive

3. Taffimai Metallumai - Small person without any manners who ought to be spanked - spoilt

Do you like reading books or seeing films about primitive/prehistoric/Neolithic human beings and how they evolved?

No, I don’t. I am very much a modern person and I wish to know how to do better in today’s environment. I like modern technology and the comforts it offers. Though I do like to understand evolution, I am not very interested in it.

Why had Taffy stamped her foot?

Taffy stamped her foot because she saw a shoal of very big carp going up the river just when her father couldn’t use his spear.

Give the meanings of the following expressions and use them in sentences of your own :

1. a pretty kettle of fish

2. make the best of a bad job

Answer:

1. a pretty kettle of fish : a messy situation.

Sentence: “What a pretty kettle of fish!” exclaimed the old man when he saw the ruined house.

2. make the best of a bad job: do something as well as one can under difficult circumstances.

Sentence: When he found that he had broken the switch while repairing it, he tried to make the best of a bad job by taping it together.

What is your opinion of Taffy?

Taffy was smart and wanted to help her father. She felt no shyness or fear when she saw the stranger and did not think twice before speaking to him. She was upset when she saw that her father was losing a big catch because his spear had broken at the wrong time.

Write whether the following statements are True or False:

Tegumai did not speak to the stranger because he was busy – 

True

The stranger was impressed with Taffy – True

Taffy wanted the stranger to help her father repair his spear – 

False

Taffy could read and write well –

 False

What did the stranger make of Taffy’s stamping her foot?

The stranger thought that Taffy was a very wonderful child because she stamped her foot at him and made faces.

Why did the stranger offer Taffy a big piece of birch-bark?

The stranger offered Taffy a big piece of birch-bark to show that his heart was as white as the birch-bark and that he meant no harm.

Write the antonyms of the following from the passage :

idle × busy

fake × genuine

rudely × politely

humble × haughty.

Your legs are longer than mine. (Rewrite using the positive degree of comparison.)

My legs are not as long as yours.

“Don’t bother grown-ups,” said Tegumai to Taffy. (Rewrite in reported speech.)

Tegumai ordered Taffy not to bother grown-ups.

What do you think about the stranger?

The stranger seems to be very simple and foolish. He cannot understand Taffy’s body language and the non-verbal communication. He interprets Tegumai’s behavior too in the wrong manner. He seems to be in awe of Tegumai and Taffy, thinking that Tegumai is a haughty chief.

Name the following: (The answers are given directly and underlined.)

The necklace was made of this: 

bead and seed and shark-tooth.

This was what Taffy drew first:

 her father fishing.

She wanted the stranger to fetch this:

 the black-handled spear.

This is what Taffy drew with:

 the shark’s tooth.

Why did the stranger’s admiration for Taffy grow?

The shark’s tooth on the stranger’s necklace was a magic shark’s tooth. He had been told that if anybody touched it without his permission, that person would immediately swell up and burst. 


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