Maharashtra board std 8th English Balbharati solutions Unit 4

 Maharashtra board std 8th English Balbharati solutions

Unit 4

Maharashtra board 8th std English Balbharati solutions unit 4


4.1 The Vet 

Textbook Questions and Answers 

Where do we find all types of wild animals in urban areas?

In the zoo. 

Do you have a pet?

No, I don’t have a pet. 

How do we help animals and birds?

We help animals and birds by providing them with food, water, and shelter. We also help them by taking them to vets when they are ill. 

How do we realize that animals are not feeling well?

When animals are not well, they become quiet and inactive. Some may even groan. They also stop eating food. 

Who gives medicines/treatment to sick animals and birds?

The veterinarian. 

Doctor who does the special advanced study of specific parts of the body have special terms.

In your group try to match the specialist doctors with who I what they treat. 

  • dentist – teeth
  • cardiologist – heart
  • ophthalmologist – eye
  • orthopedic – bone
  • pediatrician – small kids
  • neurologist – brain/spine
  • veterinarian – animals/birds 

Discuss in your group and write down the most important reason, why Pediatrician and Veterinarians have, a tougher job to diagnose their patients’ illnesses.

Pediatricians and veterinarians have a tougher job to diagnose their patients’ Illnesses as their patients cannot communicate their problems clearly. 

What is the Rhyme scheme of stanzas I to 3 and the last ho stanzas? How does it differ in the remaining stanzas 4 to 7?

The rhyme scheme of:
stanza 1: abab
stanza 2: abab
stanza 3: abab 

Write any five illnesses of the animals in the poem, that you find most amusing/laughable. 

Out of all names of birds and animals given in the poem, pick out 4 names that are similar in English as well as in Hindi / Marathi or your Mother tongue. 

Write four reasons why animals in u zoo suffer more than those who live free in the wild.

Animals in a zoo suffer more than those who live free in the wild because of: 

1. lack of free space to move around.
2. easy transmission of diseases.
3. food limited in quantity and variety.
4. trouble from human visitors. 

Think deeply and write. Is the poet really discouraging the youth from becoming sets? Explain your response.

No, the poet is not really discouraging the youth. The poem is a light-hearted one. However, the poet wants the reader to know how difficult the work of a vet is, and what a wide variety of patients he has to cure. They have different types of illnesses and different types of organs. They cannot even discuss their problems with him. We must acknowledge all this and respect the vet. 

Find out from a vet or from a website, what precaution a vet has to take, when he/she is culled to treat wild, dangerous animals? Make point-wise flutes of the same.

Points: must be aware of the signals they give – their body language – must not be distracted – protect against being attacked – precautions against allergies and transmission of diseases – wear protective gear, etc. 

Select any four zoo – animals mentioned in the poem. Imagine they are able to talk in English. Compose a dialogue among the four animals discussing their discomfort and illnesses.

Animals: giraffe, tortoise, bear, kangaroo
Giraffe: Ouch, my neck hurts! The whole length of it!

Kangaroo: Oh, you find it difficult to move your feet. What about me? My legs are of unequal length; I cannot walk comfortably. I’m expected to jump around. I’m sick and tired of jumping. I want to walk regally like you, madam hippo.

Hippo: Regally, my foot! I’m walking so slowly because I’m feeling ill, and I do not know which part of this huge body is actually painting. You, tortoise, have such a small body. Not much searching is needed to find out the cause of the problem.

Tortoise: Problem! I only want to be able to move quickly, so that I can escape my enemies, and exercise my limbs.

Giraffe: I agree with madam hippo. The bigger the body, the more the area that has to be investigated to find out the problem. My doctor is never able to find out which part of my neck actually aches.

Kangaroo: Try balancing yourself on legs of unequal length and having to jump all the time, keeping your baby in your pouch.

Hippo: Ok, we all have our own problems. Let’s hope that the doctor who looks after us has enough knowledge and experience to cure us. He cannot even understand what we say!

All the others: How true!

Discuss in your class and write down the most important reason why pediatricians and veterinarians have a tougher job to diagnose their patients’ illnesses.

Pediatricians and veterinarians have a tougher job to diagnose their patients’ illnesses as their patients cannot communicate their problems clearly.

Complete the following:

It is difficult to be a successful vet because _________.

every patient has different internal organs, and a vet has to possess an extremely wide knowledge of his subject to treat them successfully.

The ducks and chicken are ______.

not laying any eggs.

The giraffes have got stiff necks because _______.

they have been quarreling with each other

The poet calls the vet ‘omniscient’ because ________.

people expect him to know everything about animals’ illnesses and cure all sick animals

The opposite health problems of ______.

the lion and Arctic fox are that the lion has caught a cold and the Arctic fox is suffering from heat

Answer the following:

What is the rhyme scheme of stanzas 4 and 5?

The rhyme scheme of:

stanza 4 : aabccb
stanza 5 : aabccb

Pick out an example of Alliteration from the extract.

‘If the bear’s too full of buns’ Repetition of the sound of the letter ‘a’.

Pick out an example of Onomatopoeia from the extract.

Why the parrot does nothing but groan’. The word ‘groan’ indicates the sound.

From the extract, pick out the words that mean the same as the following words:

make a sound of pain.
moved
very much
capable

Answer:

groan
stirred
exceedingly
competent

What is the poet’s advice to you? Do you think he means it?

The poet advises the reader not to become a vet but to earn his/her living in an easier way. He advises the reader to become a doctor and treat the illnesses of human beings. No, I don’t think he means it. It is just said in a light-hearted way.

Is the poet really discouraging the youth from becoming vets? Explain your response.

No, the poet is not really discouraging the youth. The poem is a light-hearted one. However, the poet wants:
the reader to know how difficult the work of a vet is, and what a wide variety of patients he has to cure. They have different types of illnesses and different types of organs. They cannot even discuss their problems with him. We must acknowledge all this and respect the vet.

What is the rhyme scheme of stanzas 6 and 7?

Rhyme scheme of:
(i) stanza 6: aabccb (Note: the last line of the 6’ stanza is ‘If the elephant eats….’.)
(ii) stanza 7: aabccb (Note: thefirst line of the 7th stanza is ‘If the camel hurts….’.)

What is the rhyme scheme of the last two stanzas :

(i) stanza 8: abab (Note: the last line of the 81h stanza Is ‘Your livtng in….’.)
(ii) stanza 9: abab (Note: the first line of the 9th stanza is ‘Don’t attempt to….’.)

PIck out an example of Alliteration from the extract.

‘If the camel hurts his hump’.Repetition of the sound of the letter ‘h’.

Pick out an example of Onomatopoeia from the extract.

‘If the elephant eats paper-bags and chokes’. The word ‘chokes’ indicates the sound.

What is the rhyme scheme of stanzas 1 to 3 and the last two stanzas? How does it differ In the remaining stanzas 4 to 7?

In stanzas 1 to 3 and the last two stanzas, the alternate lines rhyme i.e. the rhyme scheme Is abab, cdcd, and so on. However, In the stanzas 4 to 7, the rhyme scheme is aab ccb I.e. the first two lines rhyme, then the third and sixth lines rhyme, and the fourth and fifth lines rhyme.

Analysis/Appreciation Of A Poem

Poem and poet: ‘The Vet’ by Guy Boas

Theme: The illnesses various animals suffer from and the difficulties of a vet.

Tone: witty and light-hearted

Structure and stanzas: stanzas and lines of unequal length: stanzas 1, 2, 3 and 8, 9 similar, and 4, 5, 6, 7 similar.

Rhyme and Rhythm: rhyme scheme ahab, cdcd, and so on for stanzas 1, 2, 3 and 8, 9. eefggf and so on for stanzas 4, 5,6, 7

Language and Imagery: Simple and witty language; vivid Images of animals with different problems, all based on their body structures and abilities.

4.2 Revolutionary Steps in Surgery

 Textbook Questions and Answers 

Warming Up 

Do you like to study science?

(Points: yes, no, the reasons why) 

What are the advantages of learning science?

(Points: knowledge, information- more career opportunities, etc.)

Are robots truly useful to human beings?

(Points: yes, no, why – examples of robots you have read of, seen in movies, etc.) 

How can we take the help of robots in our daily life?

(Points: household chores – boring,monotonous work – heavy manual jobs very intricate, minute jobs – dangerous; jobs – operations, surgeries, etc.) 

Name some gadgets and: appliances we use in day-to-day life.

(Points: washing machine, mixer, grinder, gas stoves, TV, dishwasher, heaters, etc.) 

Imagine that one of your family members I friends I classmates has recently undergone a surgery. You were curious and wanted to learn about his/her experience.
Match the questions you asked with their 

What health problem did you suffer from?

I had fractured my ankle while playing hockey. 

Whom did you Inform about It first?

Our school hockey coach.

What type of doctor did you consult?

I consulted an orthopedic surgeon. 

How did he/she find out that you needed surgery?

The doctor took an X-ray of my ankle, and he found a fracture In my ankle. 

What preparation was done before the surgery?

I was given a bath and I wore a surgical gown. 

How did you feel when you were taken to the operation theatre?

I was very nervous. 

What was the first step before the actual surgery?

I was given an injection of anesthesia. 

Did you feel any pain during the surgery?

No, I did not feel anything. I was fast asleep. 

What did you feel when you opened your eyes after the operation?

I was relieved and happy that the operation was over.

How soon did you recover?

I recovered and I could walk normally after three weeks. 

We have learned that sentences may have two, three or more sets of subject + predicate, joined by a conjunction. Each set of subject and predicate.
that is a part of a larger sentence is culled clause.

Separate the clauses in the following sentences and write the conjunction. 

The thief stole the money and he ran away.
Clause: The thief stole the money.
he ran away
Conjunction: and 

She told me that she was a doctor.
Clause : She told me
Clause : that she was a doctor
Conjunction: that 

He ran fast but he did not win the race.
Clause : He ran fast
Clause : he did not win the race
Conjunction: but

The traveller arrived at the station after the train had left.
Clause : The traveller arrived at the station
Clause : after the train had left
Conjunction: after 

Coordination
Observe the clauses in the following sentences

(1) He is intelligent and he is hardworking.
(2) Asit was tired but he could not rest.
(3) You can go for a walk or you can exercise at home.
(4) Seema has recovered from fever, so she can attend school.

Each of the above sentences have clauses which do not depend on each other for complete sense. They are called Independant or Co-ordinate clauses. They are joined by conjunctions like and, but, o, so. Such conjunctions are called Co-ordinators.
Other Co-ordinators are:
as well as / not only but also
yet / still I however / nevertheless
or / nor / else / either or / neither nor
so / therefore / thus / hence / for

From the sentences given in Activity 2 pick out two sentences having Co-ordinate Clauses. Point out the Co-ordinators:

I was given a bath and I wore a surgical gown.
Coordinate Clause (i): I was given a bath.
Coordinate Clause (ii): I wore a surgical gown.
Conjunction: and
The doctor took an X-ray of my ankle and he found a fracture in my ankle.
Coordinate Clause (i): The doctor took an X-ray of my ankle.
Coordinate Clause (ii): He found a fracture in my ankle.
Conjunction: and

1. Read the lesson and name the following:

First surgeon to perform operations

Sushruta

Anaesthetics used from mid 19th century

Ether and chloroform

First successful Cardiac Surgeon

Dr. Williams

A sack around the heart

pericardium

Father of modern neurosurgery

Harvey Cushing

World’s most advanced surgical robot

the Da Vinci.

2. Match the terms in ‘A’ with their explanation in ‘B’:

(1) – (f).
(2) – (d).
(3) – (g).
(4) – (h).
(5) – (a).
(6) – (e).
(7) – (b).
(8) – (i).
3. Fill in the web with words related to ‘Surgery’:

4. Write 3 to 4 lines about each of the following in your own words:

Sushruta Samhita

It is thought that Sushruta was probably the first surgeon to perform surgical operations, and the Sushruta Samhita is one of the oldest works In the world that deal with surgery.

First Cardiac Surgery

The first cardiac surgery was done by Dr Williams. A patient, James Cornish. was suffering from a very serious knife wound, and the knife had cut an artery less than an inch from his heart. It had punctured the pcricardium. Dr Williams and six staff doctors performed a complicated and daring operation and repaired the heart. This became the first successful cardiac surgery.

First Neurosurgeon

Harvey Cushing was the first neurosurgeon and is considered to be the father of modern neurological surgery. In the early part of the 20g” century, he developed basic techniques and instruments for operating on the brain. Cushing reduced the mortality rate for neurosurgery from 90% to less than 10%. By 1937, when he retired, he had successfully removed more than 2000 tumours. One of his most significant achievements was the development of a method to stem blood loss by inventing a clip called the ‘silver clip’ or the ‘Cushing clip’.

The Robotic Surgery

Robotic surgery is a type of minimal invasive surgery. Use Is made of miniature surgical Instruments, that fit through quarter-inch Incisions. Robotic surgery gives the surgeon a 3-D view of the operating site. Every movement he makes with the master controls Is replicated accurately by the robot. When necessary. the surgeon can even change the scale of the robot’s movements. Surgeons can use this technology to perform complex surgical procedures.

5. A. Fill in the gap in the table of Degrees of Comparison:

(1) old
(2) healthy
(3) near
(4) fine
(5) ancient

Answer:

(1) old older oldest
(2) healthy healthier healthiest
(3) near nearer nearest
(4) fine finer finest
(5) ancient more ancient most ancient

Adjectives which have more than two syllables (long words) take more and most before them to form Comparative and Superlative degrees:

For example : successful – Positive Degree
more successful – Comparative Degree
most successful – Superlative Degree

Join the sentences using appropriate Co-ordinators. (but, or, so, and):

There was lack of technology. Major surgery could not develop for centuries.

There was lack of technology,so Major surgery could not develop for centuries.

Cardiac Surgery was tried in the past. Patients did not survive.

Cardiac Surgery was tried in the past but P atients did not survive.

He places his fingers into the master controls. He operates all four arms of the Da vinci.

He places his fingers into the master controls and He operates all four arms of the Da vinci.

Open heart surgery can help to repair heart valves. It can also replace them.

Open heart surgery can help to repair heart valves or It can also replace them.

Heart patients were treated with sedatives. They did not survive.

Heart patients were treated with sedatives but They did not survive.

These procedures can be performed through very small incisions. Our patients experience a number of benefits.

These procedures can be performed through very small incisions so Our patients experience a number of benefits.

7. Write in your notebook an imaginary telephonic conversation between you and your family – secretary, asking for an appointment to consult the doctor for a health problem you are suffering from. Begin with

Secretary: Good morning! This is XYZ Clinic. How can I help you?
Myself: Good morning! I am
(Now continue……)

Write if the following statements True or False:

General anaesthesia makes the whole body numb.
True

Daniel Williams was a young African American surgeon.
True

Cardiac surgery was unknown after 1893.
False

Cardiac surgery relates to the nerves and brain.
False

Give reasons:

Doctors began to use anesthesia:

Doctors could not cut open the part of the body that was not healthy to remove or set right the part, for this would involve a lot of pain to the patient. Hence, doctors began to use general or local anaesthesia, which benumbs the whole body or part of the body. After this, the surgery could be done without pain to the patient.

Cardiac surgery had not developed:

Cardiac surgery had not developed because doctors did not have modern medical tools and procedures essential for heart surgery.

Activities based on Contextual Grammar:

Daniel Williams attempted a new medical technique in order to save a patient’s life.

(Pick out the subject and predicate.)
subject – Daniel Williams

predicate – attempted a new medical technique in order to save a patient’s life

Sushruta was the first surgeon to perform surgical operations.

(Rewrite as a negative sentence.)
No other surgeon had performed surgical operations before Sushruta.

Personal Response:

How do you feel when you are sick and have to go to a doctor?

When I am sick and have to go to a doctor, I usually feel a little frightened that he may give me an injection or ask me to have a blood test. I also feel afraid that he may put me on a strict diet

Answer the following:

Describe what kind of cardiac surgery is done nowadays.

Nowadays, more advanced techniques are used to deal with heart complications. Open heart surgery, which helps to repair heart defects and heart valves and even replace them, is also performed successfully.

Explain who neurosurgeons operate upon and on what body parts.

Neurosurgeons treat those who have disorders of the nervous system.
They can treat patients of all ages, from the newborn to the elderly, who have suffered a stroke. They operate on the brain, the spine, or the nerves.

Pick out the main clause and the subordinate clause in the following sentences:

Open heart surgery, which can help to repair heart defects, is also performed successfully.
main clause: Open heart surgery is also performed successfully
subordinate clause: which can help to repair heart defects
They can treat patients of all ages who have suffered a stroke.
main clause: They can treat patients of all ages.
subordinate clause: who have suffered a stroke

Personal Response:

Name a scientist whom you admire and say why you admire him/her.

I admire the scientist Thomas Alva: Edison. He was an American inventor who has been described as America’s greatest inventor. He developed many devices that have greatly influenced our lives, including the phonograph, the motion picture camera, and the long-lasting electric light bulb.

Complete the following:

Da Vinci is the word’s ______.

most advanced surgical robot

The Da Vinci’s miniaturized instruments are mounted on ______.

three separate robotic arms

The surgeon controls the instruments from a ______.

console located in the operating room

List the advantages of robotic surgery.

The advantages of robotic surgery:
1. Instead of operating on patients through large incisions, use is made of miniature surgical instruments, that fit through quarter inch incisions.
2. Robotic surgery gives the surgeon a 3-D view of the operating site.
3. Every movement the surgeon makes with the master controls is replicated accurately by the robot.
4. When necessary, the surgeon can even change the scale of the robot’s movements.
5. Surgeons can use this technology to perform complex surgical procedures.
Since the incisions made are very small, the patients too benefit.


Our surgeons are able to perform a growing number of complex surgical procedures. (Pick out the Non-finite verbs and say what they are.)

to perform – Infinitive;
growing – present participle

The surgeon controls these instruments and the camera from a console, located in the operating room.

(Pick out the prepositions.)
from
Personal Response:

What are the qualities needed to be a doctor?

To be a doctor, one must be very sincere, intelligent, hardworking and dedicated. A doctor must be prepared to work odd hours. He must be strong- minded and ready to face people who are in pain and distress, and who may be facing death. Finally, last but not the least, the main aim of a doctor should be to cure people. Money should be secondary.
Do as directed:

Complete the word chain of 5 nouns:

surgery → …….. → ………. → ……… →
surgery → youth → happiness → strength → health

Pick out the antonyms of the following words from those given in brackets:

simple, increased (successful, complicated, reduced, invasive, separate)

simple x complicated
increased x reduced

Arrange the following words in alphabetical order:

dramatically, mortality, disorders,magnified.
disorders, dramatically, magnified, mortality.

4.3 The Bees 

Textbook Questions and Answers 

Warming Up: 

Match the professions with the field of work:

Chief Minister – Administration

Magistrate – Law

Soldier – Defence

Trader – BusIness

Builder – Construction

Driver – Transport

Teacher – Education

Living creatures, birds, animals, insects, etc. are often used in us – 

as comparisons, because of some special characteristics they hold.

Fill in the gaps, choosing words from the brackets to make appropriate comparisons.

(tall / quiet / humble / merry / busy / slippery / fast / sly /slow / big) 

as _____ as a lark

as merry as a lark 

as _____ as a snail

as slow as a snail 

as ______ as a giraffe

as tall as a giraffe 

as _____ as a bee

as busy as a bee 

as ______ as an elephant

as big as an elephant 

as _____ as a mouse

as quiet as a mouse 

as _____ as an eel

as slippery as an eel 

as ______ as a fox

as sly as a fox 

as _____ as a deer

as fast as a deer 

as ____ as a worm

as humble as a worm 


Honey-bees live unorganized life like human beings. Discuss what work the following honey-bees do, us per the poem. Write it down in your own words, in your notebook.

King / Emperor bee

Magistrate bees

Merchant bees

Soldier bees

Mason bees

Civilian bees

Porter bees

Judge bee

Answers-

King/Emperor bee – supervises the building of the beehive

Magistrate bees – do corrective work

Merchant bees – go out to trade for nectar

Soldier bees – loot nectar from flowers and protect the hive

Mason bees – build the hive

Civilian bees – make honey from nectar

Porter bees – carry the nectar brought by the other bees

Judge bee – delivers his sentence

Complete the following choosing the appropriate option:

Human beings can learn from honey bees _________.

How to make food

how to live joyfully

how to lead an organized nation. 

How to make food

The soldier-bees carry home _______.

the velvet buds

nector, looted from flowers

their weapons

nector, looted from flowers 

The emperor-bee supervises the building of _________.

the beehive

bridges

a tower

the beehive 

The ________ bees make honey from nectar

officers

civilian citizens

magistrates

civilian citizens 

The drone is given a death sentence because he _______.

attacked the emperor

killed other bees

does not do any work 

Killed other bees

Complete the phrases using words from the poem:

_______ march

merry march 

________ tent

royal tent 

________masons

singing masons 

________ porters

poor porters 

________ burdens

heavy burdens 

________ executors

pale executors 

Find any two Alliterative lines.

Which pillage they with merry march bring home.Repetition of the sound of the letter ‘m’.

The civil citizens kneading up the honey. Repetition of the sound of the letter ‘c’.

Pick out the line that contains an Onomatopoetic word.

The singing masons building roofs of gold. The word ‘singing’ indicates sound. 

Pick out three tines that create an Image In your mind of bees, busy at work.

Make boot upon the summer’s velvet buds.

The singing masons building roofs of gold.

The civil citizens kneading up the honey.

Refer to a good dictionur which carries phonetic transcriptions printed next to words. The words below are familiar to you. Copy their phonetic transcription from the dictionary and sa it aloud us ou write. (You may take our teacher’s help, if needed)

work

bees

boot

home

mason

citizen

porters

Stress – Stress is the extra force we use when pronouncing a syllable in a word.

For example: In the word ‘King-dom’ the syllable ‘king’ is stressed.

In the word re-li-gion the second syllable is stressed.

Stress upon a syllable can be shown with short vertical line above the syllable that is stressed.

Say the following words aloud and put the stress mark on the stressed syllables:

crea-tures

bur-den

me-cha-nic

e-xe-cu-tor

de-li-ve-ring

ma-gis-trate

Answer: 

crea-tures

bur-den

me-cha-nic

e-xe-cu-tor

de-li–ve-ring

ma-gis-trate 

Project:

Gather information about the following insects. Draw their images or get pictures.

On one sheet each. fix the image I picture and below it write the information. Compile these pages and make a file of ‘Insects – our friends’.

Insects: Bee / Praying mantis / Butterfly

Beetle / Wasp / Dragon-fly 

Complete the following: 

The honey bees teach us the ______.

art of organization and living in order 

Roofs of gold refer to _______.

the structure of the golden beehive 

The death sentence is given to ________.

the drones 

The bee-hive is being built by _________.

the mason bees 

Answer the following: 

Where does the emperor-bee sit and what does he do?

The emperor-bee sits in a tent and supervises the building of the bee-hive. 

Analysis/Appreciation Of The Poem 

Poem and poet: ‘The Bees’ by William Shakespeare.

Theme: The organized, disciplined lives of the bees, with death penalty to those who do nothing.

Tone: Reflective and serious: shows admiration for the organization of the bees.

Structure and stanzas: No separate stanzas; lines of unequal length

Rhyme and Rhythm: No rhyme scheme or rhythm free verse

Language and Imagery: Language is old English Vivid images created of the activities of the bees.

Figures of Speech: Onomatopoeia, Alliteration, Inversion.

4.4 Ramanujan 

Textbook Questions and Answers 

Warming Up:

Discuss orally in your class: 

In what subjects is knowledge of mathematics used, at school level and college university level. Name them.

Did you know maths is used in music and poetry also? Can you tell me how?

(Points: knowledge of maths is used in science, physics, chemistry, economics, accountancy, etc. Poetry-rhymes, rhythm; music-beat, rhythm, etc.) 

Use the letters in the word MATHEMATICIAN to make 4 letters 5 letter and 6 or more letter words, within a time limit fixed by your teacher. 

Mathematician: cinema, anthem, thematic, machine, attach, match, meant, mice, item, mime, hate, heat, them, team, etc. 

Sentences can be classified into three types – Simple, Complex and Compound. 

A Simple Sentence is one that has only one Subject and one Predicate.

It has only one Finite verb.

For example, She went home.

In the morning, near my school, I saw a snake. 

A Complex Sentence consists of one Main Clause and one or more

Dependent or Subordinate Clauses.

For example, She went home, after school was over.

The boys found the book which had been lost. 

A Compound Sentence consists of two or more Independent orCo-ordinate Clauses. They are joined by Co-ordinators.

For example: and, but, so, or, for etc. 

He finished his work and he left his office.

He is poor but he is honest. 

Simple Sentence: ……………

Modern techniques are used nowadays for anaesthesia. 

Complex Sentence: …………..

Today, if you need to have heart surgery, you can choose from many fine doctors. 

Compound Sentence: ……………

Over the years now, revolutionary steps have been taken in different types of complicated surgery and these have made such operations successful. 

Use the following words/phrases to make sentences of your own: 

enthusiasm

The hikers set off on the hike with great enthusiasm. 

loped off

The deer loped off easily after being freed from the trap. 

fraud

The doctor was arrested by the police for being a fraud. 

clarity

The teacher told the student that there was no clarity in her answers.

to come

The minister refused to come to the party unless he was provided conveyance. 

amiable

The Principal was happy that the new teacher was an amiable person. 

to terms with

The doctor advised the woman to come to terms with her illness, 

conveyance

The minister refused to come to the party unless he was provided conveyance. 

The following words can be used us Nouns us well us Verbs:

(visit / honour / report / watch / form / surprise) 

Make pairs of sentences of your own using them us u Noun in one and as a Verb in the other.

For example:

She gave a smile – Noun.

Babies smile when they see their mother – Verb.

visit:

My grandmother came over for a visit yesterday, (noun)

“We must visit the zoo when we go to Hyderabad,” said Meera. (verb) 

honour:

It was an honour to have such a great scientist visit our college, (noun)

“Let us honour those who have laid down their lives for the country,” said the minister, (verb) 

report:

The class had to hand in their project reports by the end of the week. (noun)

Watch:

Suman lost her new watch while travelling by train, (noun)

“Watch the house to see if the thief returns,” ordered the inspector, (verb) 

form:

The boy’s admission form was rejected by the college as it was incomplete. (noun)

We formed our own impression of the new corporator, (verb) 

surprise:

“There is a surprise for you outside your door,” said my friend. (noun)

The villagers surprised thief 1 when he was sleeping and caught him. (verb) 

Say why: 

Ramanujan’s letter bored and irritated Hardy at first.

Ramanujan’s letter was written in halting English and signed by a person unknown to Hardy. The script appeared to consist of theorems, most of them wild or fantastic-looking. Some of them though well-known were laid out as though they were original. There were no proofs of any kind. It seemed to be a kind of fraud, and hence bored and irritated Hardy. 

Hardy invited Littlewood for a discussion.

Hardy could not get the Indian manuscript out of his mind. It had wild theorems he had never seen before or imagined. He wondered if it was an unknown mathematician of genius. He had another look at the script and then invited Littlewood for a discussion to clarify his doubts. 

mother agreed to send Ramanujan to England.

Ramanujan’s mother had a dream in which she saw her son seated in a big hall among a group of Europeans and the goddess of Namakkal had commanded her not to stand in the way of her son fulfilling his life’s purpose. Hence, obeying the command of the goddess of Namakkal, mother agreed to send Ramanujan to England. 

Hardy and Ramanujan could not talk freely with each other.

Ramanujan was an untrained genius. There was a big difference between Ramanujan’s and Hardy’s education. Ramanujan knew nothing of modern rigour; he did not know what proof was and Hardy was obliged to teach him some formal mathematics. He was sometimes confused with Hardy’s conversation when it was outside mathematics. Due to all these reasons, Hardy and Ramanujan could not; talk freely with each other. 

Ramanujan had to be hospitalized.

Ramanujan had to be hospitalized because he was ill. He later died of tuberculosis. Ramanujan found the number 1729 very interesting because it is the smallest number expressible as the sum of two cubes in two different ways. 

Read the text and enlist the achievements and Ramanujan’s achievements and honour, received in England: 

The Royal Society elected him a Fellow at the age of thirty (which, even for a mathematician, is very young)Trinity College elected him a Fellow in the same year.Ramanujan was the first Indian to be given either of these distinctions.

Voice – Active and Passive

The form of a verb shows whether the doer of an action is in the Subject (Active voice) or the Subject has an action done to it (Passive voice).

For example, The thief stole the jewels. (Active voice).

The jewels were stolen by the thief. (Passive voice)

Note: While changing from Active to Passive voice, the verb form includes be + past participle.

In a sentence, when the doer of an action is significant, we use Active voice. In Passive voice, the doer of an action may not be mentioned.

For example, The thief was caught. 

Underline the verbs in the following sentences and state whether the sentences are in Active or Passive voice: 

England gave Ramanujan great honours.

England gave Ramanujan great honours. (Active) 

A large untidy envelope was decorated with Indian stumps. (Passive) 

The timetable was not altered.

The timetable was not altered. (Passive) 

She saw her son in a big hail.

She saw her son in a big hail. (Active)

Hardy corrected his statement.

Hardy corrected his statement. (Active) 

Ramanujan was brought to England.

Ramanujan was brought to England. (Passive) 

Change the voice in the following sentences: 

Hardy taught Ramanujan.

Ramanujan was taught by Hardy. 

He knew nothing of the modern rigour.

Nothing of the modern rigour was known by him. 

Sheets of paper were found in it, by Hardy.

Hardy found sheets of paper in it. 

Hardy was bored by that manuscript.

That manuscript bored Hardy. 

Trinity supported unorthodox talent.

The unorthodox talent was supported by Trinity. 

He could not break the ban.

The ban could not be broken by him. 

Identify whether the following are Simple, Complex and Compound sentences: 

When he opened it, he found sheets of paper.

Complex 

He glanced at a letter.

Simple 

Hardy was not only bored but he was also irritated.

Compound 

Ramanujan turned out to be a poor clerk.

Simple 

If Ramanujan had been better educated, he would hove been even more wonderful than he was.

Complex 

Ramanujan was self-taught: he knew nothing of the modern rigour.

Compound 

Interview Question: 

A brilliant student from your school has on a Mathematics Quiz at the National Level.

Frame questions to interview him / her when the school felicitates him / her. Follow the steps given below. 

Greeting

Introduction of the interviewee and achievements.

2 or 3 questions about growing years.

4 to 6 questions about the achievements.

2 or 3 questions about future plans and prospects.

Expression of thanks and good wishes.

Answer:

Good morning, Rachana. First of all, let me offer you my Congratulations on winning the Mathematics Quiz, and that too, at the National Level. May I ask you a few questions about your achievement?

Did you have great interest in mathematics in the early years of your childhood?

How did you develop this interest?

How long did you prepare yourself before participating in this Quiz?

Who helped you and guided you?

Who encouraged you or motivated you at that stage?

How did you feel when you were actually answering the questions?

What is the next step from here?

Do you plan to make a career in mathematics?

Any message to others interested in mathematics?

Thank you, and all the best for your future. Goodbye. 

Summary: 

Read the first three paragraphs on Page 92. (From One morning upto ………… a discussion after hail)

Re-read the same noting down only Important points.

RewrIte the Important points In your own simple language, In you notebook.

Make certain that your summary Is less than half the length of the original passage. 

The Manuscript 

One morning in 1913, Hardy received an envelope from India. It contained many lines of symbols, written in non- English script. The letter with it, written in halting English and signed by an unknown Indian, wanted Hardy’s opinion on the mathematical discoveries enclosed. These were only some known and unknown theorems, without any proofs. Hardy, bored and irritated, put the manuscript aside and went to play tennis. However, his pleasure in his game was interrupted by; the thought of the Indian manuscript with the wild theorems he had left behind. He wondered if the man was a genius. When he returned to his room, he took another look at the script. Then he sent word to Littlewood that they must have a discussion after hall.

Complete the following: 

Hardy could not enjoy his game because ________.

he kept thinking of the Indian manuscript that he had received that morning. 

The manuscript contained _______.

wild and fantastic-looking theorems and lines and lines of symbols in a non-English script. 

The famous mathematicians mentioned in this extract are ______.

Hardy and Littlewood. 

The two English mathematicians realized by midnight _______.

that the writer of the manuscripts was a man of genius 

The famous mathematicians mentioned in this extract are _______.

Hardy, Ramanujan, Gauss, Euler and Kapitsa

The number 1729 is exceptional because _________.

it is the smallest number expressible as the sum of two cubes in two different ways 

The famous mathematicians mentioned in this extract are ______.

Galois, Abel, and Riemann, in addition to Hardy and Ramanujan 

Answer the following: 

Hardy invited Littlewood for a discussion.

Hardy could not get the Indian manuscript out of his mind. It had wild theorems he had never seen before or imagined. He wondered if it was an unknown mathematician of genius. He had another look at the script and then invited Littlewood for a discussion to clarify his doubts. 

What qualities of Ramanujan does this extract bring out?

This extract brings out Ramanujan’s passion for mathematics, his courage, and perseverance in sending his manuscript to a strange person across the seas, his efforts to put forward his ideas in spite of a lack of education, and his intelligence. 

What were the two drawbacks of Ramanujan’s career?

The two drawbacks in Ramanujan’s career were the defects in his education and that he had come on the scene too late in the line of mathematical history. 

What superstition did Ramanujan’s mother believe in?

Ramanujan’s mother believed in the superstition that she had to obey the commands given to her in her dream by the goddess of Namakkal and that whatever is seen in dreams comes true. 

What surprised everyone one morning?

One morning, Ramanujan’s mother said that she had a dream the previous night, in which she saw her son seated in a big hall among a group of Europeans. The goddess of Namakkal had commanded her not to stand in the way of her son fulfilling his life’s purpose. This statement, coming from a woman who was very strict about her religious observances, surprised everyone.

Say why mother agreed to send Ramanujan to England.

Ramanujan’s mother had a dream in which she saw her son seated in a big hall among a group of Europeans and the goddess of Namakkal had commanded her not to stand in the way of her son fulfilling his life’s purpose. Hence, obeying the command of the goddess of Namakkal, mother agreed to send Ramanujan to England. 

Hardy calls teaching Ramanujan an unusual experience.

Ramanujan was an untrained genius. Yet, because of the defects in his education, Hardy had to teach him some formal mathematics as though Ramanuja was a scholarship candidate at Winchester. Hardy found it strange teaching modern mathematics to someone who had the deepest insight but who had literally never heard most of it. Hence he says that teaching Ramanujan was an unusual experience. 

Personal Response: 

Do you believe in superstitions?

I don’t believe in silly superstitions: like black cats crossing the path, walking under a ladder, etc. But I believe in God and that good things happen to good people. I also believe that ‘God helps those who help themselves’. We must work hard if we want something, and not just sit back and expect God and ‘luck’ to do things for us. 

Ramanujan did not have a proper formal education. Yet he became a famous mathematician. Does this mean that proper education is not necessary?

I think Ramanujan’s case was a very rare case, where he became famous even though there were so many defects in his education. This was because he was very highly talented. However, if he had received a proper education, he would probably have done much, much more, and contributed more in the field of maths. A proper education always helps, and one must always go for it. 

In the earlier days, people used to die of illnesses like tuberculosis and pneumonia. Do you think that is still the case?

Though these diseases are still prevalent, the rate of cure is high, and the percentage of people dying from them has gone down. Different medicines have – been found for them. Today people die of cardiac problems, cancer, etc. 

Write if the following statements are True or False: 

Ramanujan was a bad-tempered person.

False 

Hardy thought that Ramanujan was an untrained genius.

True 

Ramanujan did not get admission to Madras University.

True 

Ramanujan was sometimes confused with Hardy’s conversation.

True 

Do as directed:

Pick out two compound words from the lesson.

timetable, superhuman 

Give the noun forms of:

amiable, fulfilling

amiability, fulfillment 

Find out four hidden words from the given word: miserably (Each word should have at least 4 letters.)

miserably: miser, able, miserly, bleary 

Use the following word and its homophone in two separate sentences: sent

Harsha sent the little boy home immediately.

The scent of the jasmine flowers was simply wonderful.

Rewrite as a negative sentence:

It seemed impossible that he could break the ban and cross the water.

It did not seem possible that he could break the ban and cross the water. 

Underline the adjectives in the following sentence

He seems to have listened with a patient smile on his good, friendly, homely face.

He seems to have listened with a patient smile on his good, friendly, homely, face. 

Say whether the sentence is Simple, Compound, or Complex:

If it had been summer, he would have walked down to Fenner’s to watch cricket.

Complex 

Change the voice:

They needed a certain amount of help from a superhuman agency.

A certain amount of help was needed from a superhuman agency (by them).

4.5 A Battle to Baffle 

Textbook Questions and Answers 

Warming Up: 

Form suitable groups and discuss the following: 

You have heard/read stories of Akbar and Birbal, Tenali Raman, Mulla Nasruddin.

Recollect and write down the names of those stories. 

Pick out those aspects of a story that you find common in all their stories.

The common aspect found in their stories :

humour, supernatural events, wisdom, suspense, magic, the beauty of nature, wit and play upon 

Read the different types of sentences in Reported Speech and note the differences in the Direct and Indirect forms: 

Direct: The old man said, “What is the time?

Indirect: The old man asked what the time was. 

Direct: Mother said to her, “Are you hungry now?

Indirect: Mother asked her if she was hungry, then. 

Direct: The teacher said, “Be quiet students.”

Indirect: The teacher ordered the students to be quiet. 

Direct: Mother said, “ How pretty she looks!”

Indirect: Mother exclaimed with delight that she looked very pretty. 

You will observe that – 

The Reporting Verb changes according to the type of sentence in the speech.

Change of Tense

Change of word order in the sentence.

Use a dictionary and find the differences in the following terms related to ‘drama’: 

A play:

A dramatic work staged in a theatre in front of an audience. 

One-act Play:

A play that has only one act. 

Skit:

A short funny play that makes a joke of something. 

Mime:

A type of theatre using no words but only movements of the hands and body and facial expressions. 

Farce:

A humorous play in which the characters become involved in unlikely and complicated situations. Uses physical humour and silliness. 

Opera:

A dramatic work in one or more acts in which all characters communicate through song and the story is told through song put to music. 

Tragedy:

A play dealing with tragic events and having an unhappy ending. 

Comedy:

A play characterized by humour; has a happy or cheerful ending. 

Read the following words and use them in sentences of your own: 

Renown

defiance

exiled

predicament

diffident

benign

Answer: 

The Chief Guest at our annual function was a man of great renown.

In an act of defiance, the little girl threw away the expensive toy.

The Prince was exiled by his stepmother for 10 years.

The king turned to his minister to get him out of the predicament.

The new teacher was so diffident that she could not control the students.

The lioness had a benign look on her face as she watched her cubs playing.

Read the following phrases and use them ¡n the sentences of your own in proper form: 

To voice something

a tight corner

to outwit

to concede defeat 

The mother wanted to voice her fears but could not do so.

Birbal could always manage to get himself out of a tight corner.

Birbal could outwit all the ministers in the palace.

The Captain had to concede defeat when his army began to turn back.

Pick out dialogues of Tenali Raman which prove that he had the following qualities: 

Wit and wisdom

So this is the ‘tila-kashta-mahisha-bandhana’ 

Self-confidenceLet us begin by discussing the merits of ‘tila-kashta- mahisha-bandhana’ .

Politeness

I have one small request

Humiliated

Your words of praise are my greatest reward, your Highness

Answer the following questions in shot

What was Pundit Shahane’s claim as a scholar?

Pundit Shahane’s claim as a scholar was that he had mastered all the scripture

Why did Pundit Shahane visit Vijaynagar

Pundit Shahane visited Vijaynagar to challenge the knowledge of all the Pundits in the kingdom

What do you learn about Pundits of Vijaynagar

The Pundits of Vijaynagar were frightened and nervous when their knowledge was challenged. They were insecure and did not have confidence in themselves

What punishment did the emperor threaten the Pundits with?

The punishment that the Emperor threatened the Pundits with was that they would be exiled from Vijaynagar

Why was Tenali Raman summoned to the court?

Tenali Raman was summoned to the court to find a solution to the predicamen

On what condition did Tenali Raman agree to take up the challenges?

The condition put forward by Tenali Raman was that when Pundit Shahane arrived the next day, everybody had to accept and honour him (Tenali Raman) as the Chief Pundit, for one day

Why was Tenali Raman taken to the court in a palanqui?

Tenali Raman probably wanted to impress and frighten Pundit Shahane, and hence he went to the court in a palanqui

How did Tenali Raman outwit Pundit Shahan?

Tenali Raman put his hands on a huge bundle next to him and pretended that it contained the scriptures ‘tila kashtamahisha-bandhana’ and he wanted to discuss its merits. He was in fact, only mentioning what the bundle contained. However, the Pundit thought he was referring to some scriptures that he had never even heard of, and hence could not discuss its merits. He immediately gave up. Thus, Tenali Raman outwitted him

What did the bundle in silken cloth contain?

Tenali Raman made his entry to the Emperor’s Court in a palanquin, with two pundits following him and carrying a huge bundle in silken clot

Explain the significance of the title

The theme of the skit is the challenge to see whether Tenali Raman could outwit the proud Pundit Shahane. This was the ‘battle’. The way to win this battle was to ‘baffle’ (confuse) the Pundit. Hence, the title ‘A Battle to Baffle’ is applied

5. Fill in the elements that you find in the drama script of ‘A Battle to Baffle

Character

Background Scene

Crisis

Steps taken to resolve the crisis

Climax

The end

Answer

Characters: Krishnadevaraya, Mantrji, Tenali Raman, Pundit Shahane, 8-10 other courtiers/ministers/scholar

Background Scene: Krishnadevaraya’s Courtroom. The Emperor is seated on his throne. Courtiers/ministers/scholars are seated in two rows facing one another and discussing softly

Crisis: A great scholarly Pundit Pundit Shahane, has challenged the knowledge of the Pundits of Vijaynagar. The Pundits of Vijaynagar are not ready to face this challenge

Steps taken to resolve the crisis: Tenali Raman is sent for to find a solution to the predicament and to pull them out of the tight corner

Climax: Tenali Raman, with his sheer wit manages to outwit the renowned Pundit Shahane. and make him concede defeat

The end: Pundit Shahane concedes defeat and leaves. Tenali Raman is praised by the Emperor for saving the reputation and honour of the great empire. Everyone is relieved and happy that the crisis has ended

6. Do as directed

(Make sure you do not change the meaning and tense of the sentence)

Tenali Raman proved to be wittier than Pundit Shahan

(Rewrite using ‘as witty as.’

Pundit Shahane proved to be not as witty as Tenali Rama

Pundit Shahane has come here. He wishes to challenge all the Pundits in our Kingdom

(Combine the two sentences using ‘so’. Now combine the same sentence using because.

Pundit Shahane wishes to challenge all the Pundits in our Kingdom, so he has come her

How can I discuss its merit

( Make it Assertive.

I cannot discuss its merits

I have not read that scriptures

( Rewrite using ‘unaware.’

I am unaware of that scriptures

Your words of praise are my greatest rewar

(Begin the sentence with ‘No other)

No other reward is as great as your words of praise

I am proud of you

(Rewrite using the noun form of the underlined word)

I have pride in you

The Emperor said,” But tell me Raman, to what great work did you refer

(Convert into Indirect Speech)

The Emperor asked Raman what great work he had referred to

Tenali Raman was a poet scholar and jester in Vijaynagar in Krishnadevarayas cour

(Punctuate)

Tenali Raman was a poet, scholar, and jester in Vijaynagar, in Krishnadevaraya’s cour

Mantriji said Maharaj Pundit Shahanes visit to our court is an open challenge

(Punctuate)

“Mantriji,” said Maharaj, “Pundit Shahane’s visit to our court is an open challenge

A past student of your school has cleared his UPSC examination and being an lAS officer has been appointed as a Collector of your district. Write a formal letter to invite him to your school to share the story of his success, at a special function


St. Jude school

Dr. Ambedkar Roa

Thane 400 60

15 October 201

Sub: Invitation to grace our Children’s Day function as Chief Guest

Sir, It was with great pleasure that we learned about your appointment as the Collector of our district. The Principal, teachers, and students of our school congratulate you on this wonderful achievement. We are all so proud that a student from our school has attained this high post

We intend to have a special function on November 14, Children’s Day. We cordially invite you to grace this function as the Chief Guest and share with us the story of your success. You are an inspiration for our students and your presence will motivate them greatly. The function begins at 10 a.m. and will end at 1 p.m. with lunch. In addition to the talk from you, there will be a short cultural program of dance and music

It will be an honor for us to have you here and we hope you will accept this invitation

Thanking you

Yours faithfully

Suman Kini (Cultural Secretary, St. Jude school)

Understand the quotation and expand It In a paragraph format

‘Pride goes on horseback, but returns on foot’

Pride goes on horseback but returns on foot

“I am very beautiful. I am also very clever. Everyone loves me.” How will you react if you hear someone say these words? You will be surprised at such arrogance. You will say that the person is very proud’. To be ‘proud’ here means to have a very high opinion of oneself, one’s looks, abilities, possessions, etc. Pride makes a person think that he/she is superior to others. Would you like such a person? No, no one likes a person who is proud. If you’re too conceited or self-important, someday something will happen to make you look foolish. And when a proud man meets with a bad end, others will have no sympathy for him. History is full of examples of powerful kings who were ruined because of their proud nature. That is the meaning of the quotation: Those who are proud will finally suffer defeat or meet with a shameful end

Complete the table and write who said the given words and to whom

The words Who said? To who

(1) He is visiting our court tomorrow. - Mantri -  Emperor

(2) Not one of you can face the Pundit? -  Emperor - Courtiers, Pundits, etc

(3) Let us send for Tenali Raman. - First Scholar - Emperor

(4) That’s an excellent idea - Second Scholar -  Emperor

Complete the following

The Courtiers and Pundits were unnerved when they heard the announcement that ________

a very great scholarly Pundit, called Pundit Shahane, was visiting the court to challenge the knowledge of all the Pundits in the kingdom

The first scholar proposed that _______

they send for Tenali Raman to find a solution to their predicament

Pundit Shahane’s claim as a scholar was that ______

he had mastered all the scriptures

Pundit Shahane visited Vijaynagar to _____

challenge the knowledge of all the Pundits in the kingdom

The punishment that the Emperor threatened the Pundits with was ____

that they would be exiled from Vijaynagar

Tenali Raman was summoned to the court to _____

find a solution to the predicament

The condition put forward by Tenali Raman was that _____

when Pundit Shahane arrived the next day, everybody had to accept and honour him (Tenali Raman) as the Chief Pundit, for one day

Mantriji introduced Pundit Shahane as _________

the most revered and honoured master of our ancient sculptures, and the Pride of IndIa

Tenali Raman made his entry to the Emperor’s Court _____

in a palanquin, with two pundits following him and carrying a huge bundle in silken clo

Tenali Raman wished to debate on the virtues of the scripture _______

‘tila…kashta… mahisha. .bandha

Pundit Shahane was defeated because _____

he had not read the scripture that Tenali Raman had mentioned

The Emperor and the courtiers reacted _______

by laughing loudly at Tenali Raman’s explanation

The bundle in the silken cloth contained _______

the stems of sesame plants and some rope used to tie up buffalo

He has mastered all our scriptures and won great renown all over India

(Write if the sentence is Simple, Compound, or Complex.

Compound Sentence

I am ashamed of all of you. I shall debar you from my Courtier

(Join the sentences using a coordinator.

I am ashamed of all of you and I shall debar you from my Courtier

Your words of praise are my greatest rewar

(Rewrite using the comparative form of the adjective.

There is no other greater reward for me than your words of prais

The Pundit got scared when he heard such a complicated names

(Separate into clauses)

The Pundit got scared – Main Claus

when he heard such a complicated name – Subordinate Clause

Personal Respons

What do you learn about the Pundits of Vijaynagar 

The Pundits of Vijaynagar were frightened and nervous when their knowledge was challenged. They were insecure and did not have confidence themselves

What explanation did Tenali Raman give about the name of the strange scriptures

Tenali Raman had pretended that the bundle contained scriptures called ‘tila-kashta-mahisha-bandhana’, and he wanted to discuss its merits. However, the bundle only contained some til (sesame), kashta (sticks or stems of sesame plants) and rope. Hence, tila-kashta meant the stems of sesame plants. The rope the bundle contained was used to tie up buffaloes. Mahisha meant buffalo and bandhana is the rope to tie up something. So that was ( the ‘tila-kashta-mahisha-bandhana’ he had mentioned

Write If the following statements are True or False

Tenali Raman was very proud of being chosen by the Emperor

False

The Emperor was rude to Tenali Ram

False

Tenali Raman accepted the challenge 

True

Tenali Raman wanted to be the Chief Pundit permanent

False

Match the adjectives in Column A with the nouns In Column 

(1) silken (a) scripture

(2) benign (b) clot

(3) slight (c) permissio

(4) ancient (d) bo

Answer

(1) silken (b) cloth

(2) benign (c) permission

(3) slight (d) bow

(4) ancient (a) scripture

Change the voice

They have recommended you to outwit the challenge

You have been recommended (by them) to outwit the challenge

Let them be brought forth at once

Bring them forth at once

Write the English names/words for the following

til

kashta

mahisha

bandhan

Answers

sesame

stick

buffalo

rop

Do as directed

Pick out two non-English words from the lesson

mahisha, bandha

Pick out two words used for Krishnadevaray

Maharaj, Emperor (Your Majesty, Your Highness

Add letters before the word ‘all’ to form two different word

small, shall 

Find out four hidden words from the given wor

challenger (Each word should have at least 4 letters.

challenger: challenge, change, charge, large

Write down two adjectives formed from the word

honour

honoured, honourable

Underline the pronoun

Let me assure you that I shall not let you down

Let me assure you that I shall not let you dowm

State the tense and aspect of the verb in the following sentences

Pundit Shahane has come here to challenge all the Pundits in our Kingdom

verb – has come

tense – presen

aspect – perfect

Rewrite in indirect speech

Emperor: (annoyed) Not one of you can face the Pundit? I am ashamed of all of you. I shall debar you from my court

The Emperor was annoyed and ‘ asked if not one of them could face the Pundit. He added that he was ashamed of all of them and would debar them from his court

Rewrite using the positive and comparative forms of the adjective

Tenali Raman is the greatest of all scholars

Positive: There is no other scholar as great as Tenali Rama

Comparative: Tenali Raman is greater than all other scholars

Use the following word as a noun and a verb in two separate sentence

reward

(i) The brave girl was asked to collect her reward from the Mayor, (noun)

(ii) Mona was rewarded by the old woman for bringing her cat back, (verb



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