Maharashtra board std 8th English Balbharati solutions rawranked Unit 2

Maharashtra board 8th std English Balbharati solutions

Maharashtra board 8th std English Balbharati solutions unit 2

 2.1 Vocation 

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Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Pick out the words that refer to ‘means of living’ and fill them in the web:
(profession / recreation / occupation /job / pastime / employment / hobby / career / entertainment /mission/ trade / business / sports / retirement / placement)

2. Using a good dictionary. find the shades of difference in the following:

Profession

‘Profession’ refers to a paid occupation, especially one that involves pro-longed training and a formal qualification.

Vocation

‘Vocation’ refers to an occupation for which a person is specially drawn or suited.

Business

‘Business’ refers to the activity of buying or selling goods or services; a commercial activity done by a person at his own risk.

Occupation

‘Occupation’ refers to a person’s usual or principal work or business, especially as a means of earning a living.

3. When a word is formed from a sound associated with it, it is called an Onomatopoetic Word.

For example : bang, tap, tinkle. crash, whistle etc.
If an Onomatopoetic word occurs in the lines of a poem, the Figure of Speech in that line is Onomatopoeia.

Write down eight to ten Onomatopoetic words on your own.

Answer:

buzz
whoosh
clang
chirp
clap
howl
hiss
grunt
purr
quack

Complete the following

nobody takes him to task ………..

scolds and corrects

………. if he gets baked in the sun …………..

exposed to heat

………….chasing the shadows with my lantern ……………..

following imaginary goals

The lane is dark and lonely ……………..

deserted

………….. he soils his clothes with dust ………….

dirties the clothings

…………. There is no road he must take ………….

no particular route

3. Think and answer in your own words:

What could be the age group of the speaker in the poem?

The speaker in the poem is a young school-going boy.

What is the difference between a hawker and a shopkeeper?

The difference between a hawker and a shopkeeper is that a hawker does not have a fixed shop. He goes from street to street selling his wares. A shopkeeper has a fixed shop and people who want to buy his goods must go to his shop.

How do parents react when they see children soil their clothes in dust and heat?

When parents see their children exposed to heat or soil their clothes in the dust, they scold them and stop them from doing it.

Why is the street light compared to a one-red-eyed-giant?

The street light is very tall and has a single red light at the top. Hence it is compared to a giant with one red eye.

What exactly does the speaker in the poem crave for?

The speaker in the poem, who is a young school-going boy, craves for complete freedom to do whatever he wants and whenever he wants. He wants freedom from authority. He wants to lead a carefree life.

Does the poet really wish to become a hawker/gardener/watchman? Justify your response.

The poet does not really wish to become a hawker/gardener/watchman. He is childish and sees only what he thinks is their ‘carefree’ life. He does not see the difficulties. He actually only craves for complete freedom from authority.

4. Say why the speaker of the poem wishes to be:

Hawker:

The speaker in the poem feels that there is nothing to hurry the hawker. There is no fixed road he must travel by, no place that he must go to and no time when he must get back home. The speaker feels he is lucky and hence he wishes to be a hawker. It means that the speaker wants to be free to do what he wants and go where he wants to, without any restrictions.

Gardener:

The speaker in the poem sees that the gardener in the nearby house is digging the ground. He does what he likes with his spade. He is free to get his clothes soiled with mud, get baked in the sun or get wet. No one scolds him. Hence the speaker wishes to be a gardener so that he is able to enjoy freedom in the open without any restrictions.

Watchman:

The speaker is in his bed Through the open window, he can see the watchman walking up and down the dark and lonely street with a lantern in his hand. The speaker is resentful that he has to go to bed. He thinks that the watchman never goes to bed in his life. Hence he wishes to become a watchman and walk up and down in the dark street at night, having fun chasing the shadows with his lantern

5. Pick outlines that contain Alliteration. Simile, Repetition, Onomatopoeia:

(a) Alliteration:

(i) ‘I can see through the gate the gardener digging the ground.’ Repetition of the sound of the letter ‘t’ and ‘g’.
(ii) ‘He does what he likes with his spade, he soils his clothes…’ Repetition of the sound of the letter ‘h’.
(iii) ‘nobody takes him to task’ Repetition of the sound of the letter ‘t’.

(b) Simile:

‘The street lamp stands like a giant with one red eye in its head.’ The street lamp is directly compared to a giant, using the word ‘like’.

(c) Repetition:

(i) The words ‘Bangles, crystal bangles’ are repeated to create images in our mind of the hawker.
(ii) The words ‘no’ and ‘nobody’ are repeated for emphasis.

(d) Onomatopoeia:

‘the gong sounds ten’ : the word ‘gong’ is an onomatopoeic word formed from the sound associated with it.

6. Some poets do not use uniformity in rhyming words, nor a steady rhythm. Such poems with no uniformity in rhyme, rhythm, length of lines, or stanzas are called Free Verse. Walt Whitman, Ezra Pound, T.S. Eliot, Rabindranath Tagore are some famous poets who have composed poems in Free Verse.
A quick glance at the poem Vocution’ reveals that the style used by Tagore is Free Verse.
Now turn the pages of your textbook and see if you can find other poems in Free Verse.

7. ‘occupation/profession/business would you like to take up in the future?

Prepare a fact file for the same using the following points.

Name of the vocation / profession / business ……….
Educational qualifications required ………..
Work profile/description………..
Opportunities for advancement …………..
our personal skills/talents for the choice …………... 

  • Name of the vocation/profession/business: Engineering
  • Educational qualifications required: B.E/B.Tech
  • Work profile/description: Setting up of projects/setting up plants/inventing new instruments and machines
  • Opportunities for advancement: Excellent in a developing country like India
  • Your personal skills/talents for the choice: My interest in seeing how various machines work and my talent in repairing simple instruments

Choose the correct alternative and rewrite the complete sentence:

The hawker is advertising aloud for selling metal bangles/crystal bangles.

The hawker is advertising aloud for selling crystal bangles.

The narrator/The gardener is scolded if he gets dirty.

The narrator is scolded if he gets dirty.

The speaker in the poem is a young school-going boy/an adult going to work.

The speaker in the poem is a young school-going boy.

Complete the following:

The difference between a hawker and a shopkeeper is _____.

that a hawker does not have a fixed shop. He goes from street to street selling his wares. A shopkeeper has a fixed shop and people who want to buy his goods must go to his shop

When parents see their children exposed to heat or soil their clothes in the dust, they ________.

scold them and stop them from doing it.

The watchman is accompanied by _______.

his lantern and his shadow.

The street lamp appears to be _______.

a giant with one red eye in its head.

Analysis/Appreciation Of The Poem

Poem and poet: ‘Vocation’ by Rabindranath Tagore
Theme: The longing of a young boy for freedom.
Tone: direct; full of craving
Structure and stanzas: Stanzas of unequal length; the number and length of lines vary.
Rhyme and Rhythm: No rhymes or rhythm; the poem is in Free Verse.
Language and Imagery: Simple and direct; vivid images of the hawker, the j gardener and the watchman.
Figures of Speech: Alliteration, Simile, Repetition, Onomatopoeia.

 2.2 Nature Created Man and Woman as Equals

Textbook Questions and Answers

Warming Up

A. Study the pictures given on page 30 of the textbook and note the differences :

Set (i) In the first panel a boy is going to school while a girl of the same age is doing household chores. In the next panel, both the boy and the girl are going to school.

Set (ii) In the first panel, a woman is trudging along balancing pots of water on her head and a baby on her hip. In the next panel, a woman is teaching children at a school.

B. Now write what you observe in the following two pictures:

(i) In the first panel a boy and a man are shown sharing the household chores, leaving the women to do other work.
(ii) In the next panel, men and women are working in an office together at an equal level.

C. Which pictures reflect gender equality? Write their numbers.

The pictures on the right-hand side of:
(A) and both the pictures of
(B) reflect gender equality.

D. Write down any two slogans on gender equality.

(i) Let’s have peace and unity
For all, give equal opportunity.

(ii) Men and women, Are all the same.
Please stop playing, This discrimination game.

Find from the lesson words/phrases that mean the following:

colours …………

Hues.

a person who writes for newspapers/magazines …………

Journalist.

make a difference between ………

Discriminate.

cryover ………

Lament

explain in detail ………

Throw light on.

abilities and qualities ……….

Potential

same availability ……….

Equal Access

a person who brings about a social/political change …………
Activist.

Pick out five Compound words from the lesson.

  • anywhere
  • household crystal-clear
  • courtyard
  • reading room
  • middle-age

2. Answer in your own words:

Read and write down 5 points which prove that Tomba, (Lanthoi’s father) firmly believes in gender equality.

The facts which prove that Tomba firmly believes in gender equality are:

  1. Tomba is supportive of Ashang bis activities as a woman’s rights activist.
  2. He advocates the cause of women.
  3. He does not discriminate between a man’s work and a woman’s work.
  4. He shares equally with Ashangbi in doing the household chores like cooking, washing, etc.
  5. He tells Lanthoi that the world is still full of inequalities and they have to find a way to bring equality between men and women.

In what ways is Ashangbi different from other women of her community?

Ashangbi is different from other women of her community:
she is a woman’s rights activist
she is a journalist is different

What are the provisions in the Declaration of the United Nations, to ensure equality of men and women?

The provisions In the Declaration of the United Nations to ensure equality of men and women are:
equal access to basic social services including health and education.
equal participation in political and economic decision-making.
equal reward for equal work, and
elimination of discrimination and violence against women.

3. Who said to whom and when / why?

Who said? -  To Whom? -- When/why?
………the world is full of inequalities - Tomba Lanthoi -- When he is discussing gender equality with his daughter.

I want to do something interesting - Lanthoi Ashangbi - When she wants to discuss something with her mother.

It is against the will of God - Ashangbi Lanthoi - When she is talking about the subjugation of women.

Our home is full of love…….. - Lanthoi Ashangbi - When she is discussing gender equality with her mother.

……….we can affirm along with United Nations that men and women are equal. - Ashangbi Lanthoi - When Lanthol asked her about the provisions available to enable women to express their potential and set themselves free from suppression.

4. We have studied in previous classes that Pronouns are nords used instead of Nouns.

We also know about Personal Pronouns like I, you, he, she, my, your, his, her, they etc.
There are other words also which are used in place of nouns.
(i) This, that, these, those point to some noun.
For example: ‘Ihi is a kingfisher.’ Those are herons.’ Such Pronouns are called Demonstrative Pronouns.

(ii) Some pronouns not only replace nouns, but also connect two sentences.
For example : Biology is a science. It studies living organisms.’
Biology is a science which / th studies living organisms.
Some other such pronouns are who, whose, whom etc.
They are called Relative Pronouns.

(iii) Some pronouns are used to ask questions.
For example: What is your name?
Which is your coat?
Who is your coach?
The underlined words are Interrogative Pronouns.

Underline the Pronouns in the following sentences and name their types:

What do you want to do?

What – Interrogative Pronoun
you – Personal Pronoun

It is because of your father that I feel no inequality.

your, I-Personal Pronoun

This is what your topic means.

This – Demonstrative Pronoun;
your-Personal Pronoun

She is fascinated by the small trail, which winds up the mountain.

She – Personal Pronoun
which – Interrogative Pronoun

5. Read the following lines. Imagine it is the beginning of an instance you have experienced. Complete the incident using your imagination. Give it u positise ending. I had often noticed that in my neighbour’s family, the son was greatly pampered, but the daughter was treated unfairly. I could not bear this. So one day I decided to …………Continue the write-ups with your own ideas, in about 12 – 15 lines.


I had often noticed that in my neighbour’s family, the son was greatly pampered, but the daughter, Meera, was treated unfairly. I could not bear this. So one day I decided to do something about it. I knew that as a young girl, I could not go in and give them advice. It had to be done diplomatically. I decided to make a folder of stories of successful women who had scaled wonderful heights and were greatly respected. I also made a list of women entrepreneurs and their lives. It took me a long time to do this, but it also became my project at school and I got guidance from my teacher and my mother. They asked me to make a power-point presentation too, in addition to the folder. After about three months of hard work. my project was complete.

One afternoon, when I knew that Meera’s mother would be alone at home, I took my presentation and my folder. Pretending that I wanted her opinion on my school project, I showed her the entire presentation. My plan was successful. At the end of two anxious hours, Meera’s mother turned round and hugged me. “I get your message,” she said through her tears. “We have been unfair to Meera. We will rectify it immediately. Thanks, dear.”
I don’t know the marks I will get in school for my project, but according to me, it is already in the A+ category. It has made a positive impact. And that’s enough reward for me.

6. Project :
From your school library or internet collect quotations/slogans promoting gender equality. Make decorative posters with pictures of outstanding women or sketches or illustrations of your choice. With permission, put up the posters in your school surroundings.

Make a list of the beautiful natural surroundings of the house.

Answer:

A small stream of crystal clear water.
The green mountains
A stretch of hundreds of acres of fertile land with yellow mustard flowers.
A garden in front of the house.
Many kinds of trees bearing flowers of different colours and fruits.
Fragrant jasmine.

What help did Lanthoi need from her mother?

Lanthoi was going to speak on the topic ‘God created men and women as equals’ at her school. She wanted to have some discussion with her mother on the topic.

State what kind of sentences the following are:

Tell me what you want to do

Imperative

Will you spare some time to have a discussion with me ?

Interrogative

Personal Response:

Do you think that a woman should have a paid job outside the house or stay at home as a full-time homemaker?

I think that depends on the woman and the circumstances. If she is qualified and wants to pursue a career, she should do so. If she wishes to stay at home, she should do that. It is important that she should have the freedom to choose and do as she wishes.

What did Lanthoi’s father work as?

Lanthoi’s father Tomba is a lawyer and a social wrorker, who advocates the cause of women.

What does Ashangbi feel about Tomba’s views on gender equality?

Ashangbi is appreciative of Tomba’s view on gender equality.

List the ways in which Tomba contributes towards Ashangbi’s success.

The ways in which Tomba contributes towards Ashangbi’s success are:
> Tomba is supportive of Ashangbi’s activities.
> He is always proud of his wife and children.
> In times of need, he helps his wife and children.
> He does not discriminate between a man’s work and woman’s work.
> He shares equally with Ashangbi in doing the household chores like cooking, washing, etc.

Describe how mother explained Lanthoi’s topic for her speech at school.

Lanthoi’s topic for her speech was ‘God created men and women as equals.’ Ashangbi explained to Lanthoi that God has sent men and women to our earth to share the joys and sorrows of life equally, to share His blessings and to enjoy the bounty of nature equally. Hence, men and women are equals and should be treated as such.

Write down five points which prove that Tomba firmly believes in gender equality.


The facts which prove that Tomba firmly believes in gender equality are:

Tomba is supportive of Ashangbi’s activities as a woman’s rights activist.
He advocates the cause of women.
He does not discriminate between a man’s work and woman’s work.
He shares equally with Ashangbi in doing the household chores like cooking, washing, etc.
He tells Lanthoi that the world is still full of inequalities and they have to find a way to bring equality between men and women.

Personal Response:

In olden days, men and women had ‘fixed’ roles to play, and ‘fixed’ jobs to do. Do you think there should be a change in this today?

Yes, as society changes and progresses we must change the ‘fixed’ roles and ‘fixed’ jobs too. Today, when women are going out, working and adding to the family income, men too should help in the house. Women have learnt to do many jobs which were earlier done only by men. Men too should learn to do jobs which were earlier done only by women.

Write whether the following statements are True or False:

Lanthoi’s grandmother has narrated many stories about brave queens to her.

True

Lanthoi found the topic of pioneer women boring.

False

Linthoingambi and Kuranganayani were brave kings.

False

Lanthoi has a lot of respect for Ashangbi.

True

Describe how the role of a mother is honoured and praised.

The mother is said to be the fountain of love in the family. This bond of love cannot be compared to anything else in the world. Motherhood has been glorified because of this and therefore women accept the challenges in life to become a mother.

Write the noun forms of the following words:

know
qual
narrated
brave

Answer:

knowledge
equality
narration/narrator
bravery

This bond of love Is beyond comparison with anything else in the world.

(Make the sentence negative.)

This bond of love cannot be compared with anything else In the world.

Life is not possible without both women and men.

(Make the sentence affirmative.)

Life is impossible without both women and men.

Personal Response:

Have you read stories/biographies of successful women? Did you like them?

Yes, I have. I have read about Rani Laxmlbal. I have also read short stories and articles about women like Marie Curie, Sudha Chandran, Annie Besant, Mother Teresa, etc. like them and find them motivating.

Write ‘Yes’ or ‘No’:

Lanthoi finally understands what the topic of the symposium means.

Yes

Ashangbi satisfies her daughter’s curiosity.

Yes

Lanthoi is unsure and nervous about her presentation.

No

The United Nations has affirmed that men and women are equals.

Yes

Write down the provisions in the Declaration of the United Nations to ensure equality of men and women. OR What social justice does the aegis of the United Nations guarantee?

The provisions In the Declaration of the United Nations to ensure equality of men and women are:
equal access to basic social services including health and education.
equal participation in political and economic decision-making.
equal reward for equal work, and
elimination of discrimination and violence against women.

Describe the vision that meets Lanthoi’s eyes when she rushes outdoor.

When Lanthoi rushes outdoors, she is welcomed by the bright morning sun. The blue sky and the range of mountains : appear to meet. Lanthoi is fascinated by a small trail which goes winding up the ; distant purple mountain.

Pick out the subject and predicate:

He extends his helping hand to his wife and children and to the society at large.

He-subject
extends his helping hand to his wife and children and to the society at large-predicate

Use the word ‘share’ as a noun and a verb in two separate sentences:

(i) The wicked brother wanted his share in the property, (noun)
(ii) The poor woman shared the loaf of bread with her children, (verb)

Writing Skills

Read the following lines. Imagine that it is the beginning of an instance you have experienced. Continue the write-up with your own ideas, in about 12-15 lines and complete the incident using your imagination. Give it a positive ending.

I had often noticed that in my neighbour’s family, the son was greatly pampered, but the daughter was treated unfairly. I could not bear this. So one day I decided to ……………..


I had often noticed that in my neighbour’s family, the son was greatly pampered, but the daughter, Meera, was treated unfairly. I could not bear this. So one day I decided to do something about it.

I knew that as a young girl, I could not go in and give them advice. It had to be done diplomatically. I decided to make a folder of stories of successful women who had scaled wonderful heights and were greatly respected. I also made a list of women entrepreneurs and their lives. It took me a long time to do this, but it also became my project at school and I got j guidance from my teacher and my mother.

They asked me to make a power-point presentation too, in addition to the folder. After about three months of hard work, my project was complete. One afternoon, when I knew that Meera’s mother would be alone at home, I took my presentation and my folder. Pretending that I wanted her opinion on my school project, I showed her the entire presentation.

My plan was successful. At the end of two anxious hours, Meera’s mother turned round and hugged me. “I get your message,” she said through her tears. “We have been unfair to Meera. We will rectify l it immediately. Thanks, dear.” I don’t know the marks I will get in ; school for my project, but according to me, it is already in the A+ category. It has made a positive impact. And that’s enough reward for me.

 2.3 The Worm 

 
Textbook Questions and Answers

Warming Up:

1. ‘Worms play a very important role; in maintaining ecological balance. They are friends of farmers.’ Form groups and discuss the significance; of worms in the above two roles.

(Point: worms – loosen the soil-bring up fertile soil-turn organic garbage into organic fertilizers-provide/proteins, etc.)
(Students can discuss this as Oral Work.)

2. Think and write down how the following creatures can be useful:

DragonFly:

eats mosquitoes and flies; controls unwanted insects.

Spider:

keeps insect population under control.

Ants:

turn and aerate the soil; help; in seed dispersal.

Honeybees:

provide honey; help in pollination.

Earthworms:

loosen the soil; turn organic garbage into fertilizer.

3. Little creatures in nature can also be your teachers. Think and write: what we can learn from the following:

Bees:

organization; hard work self-sacrifice

Ants:

team work hard work discipline

Spiders:

patience perseverance

Caterpillars:

patience acceptance of change

4. Breeding worms to convert organic waste into fertilizer is called Vermiculture or Vermicomposting.
Find out more about Vermiculture and how you can carry out the same in your garden/backyard to fertilize your plants at home.
(Students can attempt this on their own as a project.)

1. Read the poem aloud and you ill find some old outdated words that we do not use in everyday language now.

However, some writers poets use them to impart an old-fashioned flavour to suit the background of their write-up. Such words are called Archaic words.

Give the modem words for the archaic words from the poem.


thy – your
being – life
bestow’d – gifted/given as a gift
thee – you
thou – you
cans’t – can

Read any poem I sonnet by William Shakespeare. Pick out archaic words and guess what they mean.

2. The poet uses a device where he directly addresses someone absent or abstarct. Such a device is the Figure of Speech called ‘Apostrophe'

For example: Turn, turn, thy, hasty, foot aside.

Pick out any two other lines from the poem that shows an Apostrophe.

(i)Turn, turn thy hasty foot aside
(ii) Let them enjoy their little day
(iii) O do not lightly take away
The life thou canst not give.

3. Think and answer in your own words ¡n your notebook:

Why does the poet appeal to us to respect the life of worms?

OR

Why should we take care even of small worms?


The poet urges us to remember that every creature on this earth is created by God for some purpose. We must hence respect every creature, big or small, for each has its own role to play in this universe. Besides, we have no right to lightly take away a life which we cannot give back.

Why had God created worms? What is their ecological importance?

Every creature on this earth is created by God for some purpose. Worms play a very important role in maintaining ecological balance. They loosen and aerate the mud and bring up fertile, nutrient-rich soil. They turn organic garbage into organic fertilizers. Their bodies provide proteins.
Thus, though they are so small, they play a huge role in maintaining ecological balance, and this is the purpose for which God created them.

Live and let live’ is a famous proverb. Which lines from the poem support this proverb?

The lines from the poem that support the proverb ‘Live and let live’ 

(i) Turn, turn thy hasty foot aside Nor crush that helpless worm
(ii) Let them enjoy their little day
(iii) Do not lightly take away The life thou canst not give

Does the poem urge us to protect I only worms ? What is the general message conveyed through the poem?

Though the poem is about the worm, the general message is that God has created all the creatures on earth, big ? and small, and every creature has a role to play. All beings have equal rights over the bounties of the earth. No one can take away a life that he/she cannot give.

4. Find from the library or internet other poems composed on tiny Hing creatures. Try to understand the message in each of them.

5. ‘Even small things in nature play a big role. So protect nature!’

Frame some solgans based on the above topic.

Draft a short speech on the abose topic, which you could give at your school assembly.
Use the following steps while drafting.
(1) Greeting
(2) Salutation
(3) Self-introduction
(4) Introduction of the topic
(5) Body of the speech
(6) Conclusion
(7) Expression of gratitude to audience

Small But Important

Respected Principal, teachers and my dear friends, Good morning. Today is 5th June, World Environment Day, and on this important day I, Smruti Kamath, would like to say a few words on the huge role played by the small things in nature.

Let me begin with the earthworm. The earthworm is rightly called the friend of the farmer for it helps the farmer in immeasurable ways. It not only loosens and turns up the soil, it converts garbage into organic fertilizer too. Those minute creatures, ants, help in aerating the soil and in seed dispersal. Bees, in addition to providing honey, are indispensable in pollination. We owe our food to the work done by these little insects. Dragonflies and spiders keep down the insect population by eating insects. Frogs and fish eat the larvae of mosquitoes.

I could go on and on, extolling the virtues and the uses of every little being on this earth. However, time does not permit me to do this, and I end my speech by requesting all of you here to understand and respect the importance and the place of every little creature on this earth. Thank you.

6. Rewrite the poem in your own simple language. Write it down in your notebook.

In this poem, the poet tells the reader, who is in a hurry, to turn his foot aside so that he does not crush the helpless worm. The reader may be filled with scorn and hatred for the worm, but it was created by God.

The same God who made human beings and all other things that move has also given a portion of His unlimited love to the poor worm.
God has given the sun, the moon and the stars free to all the creatures He created. The grass that grows over the earth was made for worms as well as for human beings. The poet urges the reader to allow the worms to enjoy their brief life with its humble pleasures. He tells us not to take away a life which we cannot give.

7. Frame a pointwise Analysis of the poem ‘The worm’. Use the following points.

(a) Poem and poet: ‘The Worm’ by Thomas Gisborne.
(b) Theme: Respect every creature big or small, for each has its own role to play in this universe.
(c) Tone: Serious and thought-provoking in the imperative.
(d) Structure and stanzas: Stanzas of four lines each short lines.
(e) Rhyme and Rhythm: Rhyme scheme: abab, cdcd, and so on. The last words of the first and third line and second and fourth line of every stanza rhyme, Rhythm is smooth.
(f) Language and Imagery: Archaic language; no imagery.
(g) Figures of Speech: Apostrophe, Inversion.

The other creations of God that are mentioned in the poem are the sun, _____.

the moon, the stars, the earth, blades of grass and humans.

The thought in the last two lines is that _____.

we have no right to lightly take away a life that we cannot give back.

Pick out examples of Inversion from the poem.

(i) On that poor worm bestow’d
(ii) The sun, the moon the stars He made To all His creatures free.

Writing Skills:

Even small things in nature play a big role. So protect nature Frame some slogans based on the above topic.


(i) Nurture nature and get/nurtured by nature.
(ii) All creatures great and small.
The good Lord made them all.
(iii) Take care of one and all.
All creatures great and small.

 2.4 Three Visions for India


 Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Read the Preamble of the Constitution of India given in your textbook. Pick out words that refer to the following.

Brotherhood
Freedom
Earnestly and seriously
Fair and impartial treatment
Having supreme authority
Unity and oneness
A promise made to oneself

Answer:

Brotherhood: fraternity
Freedom: liberty
Earnestly and seriously: solemnly
Fair and impartial treatment: equality
Having supreme authority: sovereign
Unity and oneness: integrity
A promise made to oneself: resolve

2. Finite and Non- finite Verbs:

Verbs are action words. They can be Finite or Non-finite.
Read the sentences below, focusing on the verbs.
(a) I play football.
(b) He plays football.
(c) They play football.
(d) Manish plays football.

We notice that the verb ‘play’ as we change the person (First I Second /Third) or Number (Singular/Plural) of the Subject.
When the use of a verb is limited by the Person or Number of the Noun/Pronoun in the Subject, we call it a Finite Verb.
Now read the sentences below.

(a) I like to play football.
(b) He likes to play football.
(c) They like playing football.
(d) Manish likes to play football.

In the sentences above the verb ‘to play’ or ‘playing’ does not change or take ‘-s’ or ‘-es’ after them, even when we change the Person or Number of the Subject.
to + verb, I verb + ing/verb + en I ed/having + verb + en I ed are not limited by their Subject. Such verbs are called Non-finite Verbs.

1. Complete Dr APJ Abdul Kolum’s profile with information picked from the lesson:

Profile – Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam
a. Title: …….
b. Profession: ………
c. Branch of science: ……..
d. Important position in Government held: ………..
e. His three visions for India: ……..

Answer:
a. Title: Dr. APJ Abdul Kalam
b. Profession: Missile scientist.
c. Branch of Science: Physics and Aerospace Engineering.
d. An important position in government-held: 11th President of India.
e. His three visions for India: Freedom, Development, and Standing Up to the rest of the World.

2. Using a dictionary/internet note down the main differences between

a developing nation and a developed nation

(i) a developing nation: a country that is poor and whose citizens are mostly agricultural workers, and the average income is very low.
(ii) a developed nation: a country with a lot of industrial activity, high economic growth and where people have high incomes.

self-reliant and self-assured

(i) self-reliant: not needing help or support from other peoples
(ii) self-assured-having confidence in yourself.

our strengths and our achievements

(i) our strengths – the qualities and abilities that we have which are an advantage to us, or which make us successful.
(ii) our achievements – our successes or accomplishments.

farm and granary

(i) farm – a large area used for growing crops/flowers, etc.
(ii) granary – a storehouse for grain

a remote-sensing satellite and a natural satellite

(i) a remote-sensing satellite – artificial (man-made) satellites with remote sensors which have been launched into space to measure various things.
(ii) a natural satellite – any celestial body in space that orbits around a larger body.

3. Find evidence from the lesson and write in your own words:

Indians respect the freedom of others.

India has not tried to conquer anyone, or grab their land, culture and history. We have not tried to force our way of life on anyone. This is because Indians respect the freedom of others.

It is time to see ourselves as a developed nation.

We have been a developing nation ‘ for 50 years. Now we are among the top five nations of the world in terms of GDP we have ten percent growth rate in most areas. Our poverty levels are falling and our achievements are being recognized globally. It is time to see ourselves as a developed nation.

We Indians are obsessed with foreign things.

We Indians are obsessed with foreign things and we want to have things like foreign TVs, foreign shirts and foreign l technology.

In Israel, the media have a positive outlook and self-respect.

In Israel, it was the day after Hamas had struck and a lot of attacks, bombardments and deaths had taken place. However, the front page of the newspaper had an inspiring picture of a Jewish gentleman who in five years had transformed his desert land into an orchid farm and granary. The gory details of the killings, bombardments, deaths, etc. were inside the newspaper, buried among other news. This showed that in Israel the media have a positive outlook and self-respect.

India has many amazing success stories.

India has many amazing success stories. We are not only the second largest producer of wheat in the world, but also the second largest producer of rice. We are the first in milk production and are number one in remote sensing satellites. We have great personalities like Dr. Sudarshan, who has transformed a tribal village into a self-sustaining, self-driving unit.

4. Pick out some sentences from (he Iesson that coney u general truth.

(i) If we are not free, no one will respect us.
(ii) …………
Answer:

(i) If we are not free, no one will respect us.
(ii) We must stand up to the world or no one will respect us.
(iii) Only strength respects strength.
(iv) Military power and economic power-both must go hand in hand.

5. Find out from the Internet the poem Song of Youth’ by Dr APJ Abdul Kulam.

(A) Copy it down in your notebook and write its theme in your own words.
(B) Using information from our school library or the Internet, prepare a
Profile of any great Indian Scientist. (Refer to Activity 1 for points.)

6. Say whether each of the verbs, underlined below, is Finite or Non-finite.

We lack the confidence to see ourselves as a developed nation.

lack – Finite
to see – Non-finite
developed – Non-finite

We stand first in producing milk.

stand – Finite
producing – Non-finite

I want to live in a developed India.

want – Finite
to live – Non-finite

We prefer buying imported things.

prefer – Finite
buying – Non-finite

Indians never try to force their way of life on others.

to force – Non-finite

Having invaded India, they captured our land.

captured – Finite

7. Phrases and Clauses:

Study the underlined groups of words.

(i)
(a) He wore a shirt made of cotton.
(b) He wore a shirt which was made of cotton.

(ii)
(a) Are you sure of your innocence?
(b) Are you sure that you are innocent?

(iii)
(a) This is the exact reason for his failure.
(b) This is exactly why he has failed.

(iv)
(a) Pay careful attention to my words.
(b) Pay careful attention to what I say.

(v)
(a) After finishing his work, he went home.
(b) He finished his work and he went home.


You will notice that all underlined groups of words in sentences marked (a) merely
refer to a concept or expression. They do not contain a Subject or a Main or Principal
Verb. Such a group of words or unit of a sentence is called a PHRASE
Each of the underlined groups of words in sentences marked (bi convey a thought/concept and have a Subject and a Principal or Main Verb.
This unit /part of a sentence is called a CLAUSE.

Do you know his place of birth?

Do you know where he was born?

In his absence, the thieves looted his house.

When he was absent, the thieves looted his house.

I am a citizen of India. I am a citizen.

I am a citizen who belongs to India.

Pick out a sentence from the extract that conveys a general truth.

If we are not free, no one will respect us.

What helped Dr. Kalam fix the three visions for India?

Dr. Kalam fixed the three visions for India based on the achievements and progress he had witnessed in the history of the nation and during his own career as a missile scientists

How should we handle our freedom?

We should protect and nurture our freedom and build on it.

Write the past tense forms of the following words:

grab
build
conquer
try

Answer:

grabbed
built
conquered
tried

Rewrite the following sentences as affirmative sentences

We have not done this to any other nation.

We have refused to do this to any other nation.

If we are not free, no one will respect us.

We will be respected only if we are free.

Personal Response:

What, do you think, will happen if everyone in the world respected the freedom of others?

If everyone in the world respected the freedom of others, there would be complete peace and harmony in the world. There would be no wars and no bloodshed. Everyone would be happy and free to develop his full potential

Pick out two compound words from the passage.

self-reliant, self-assured

Do you agree that ‘our media is obsessed only with bad news, failures and disasters’?

Yes, I agree. The front pages of all leading newspapers carries only bad news. The good news is carried in very fine print somewhere deep in the paper. It can be very depressing. Only when we read detailed articles or actually visit places can we see the amazing success stories and the development.

Complete the following:

The prerequisite of self-respect is _______.

self-reliance.

The foreign stuff we Indians are crazy about is foreign TVs, ______.

foreign shirts and foreign technology.

The dream of the fourteen-year-old girl in Hyderabad is _____.

to live in a developed India.

Pick out a sentence from the extract that conveys a general truth.

Self-respect comes with self-reliance.

Write the antonyms of the following words using prefixes:

respect x disrespect
developed x undeveloped
inspiring x uninspiring
imported x exported

Pick out the relative pronouns from the following sentences:

The front page had the picture of a gentleman who had transformed his desert land into an orchid farm.

who

It was this inspiring picture that everyone woke up to.

that

Personal Response:

Would you too like to live in a developed India? What will be the advantages?

Yes, I too would like to live in a developed India. Then there will be no crowds, no queues, admissions to schools and colleges will be easy, there will be no dearth of natural resources, and everyone will be able to live in luxury.

Do as directed:

Write the root words of the following words : achievement, inspiring

achieve, inspire

Use the following phrase in your own sentence : stand up to

We must have the courage to stand up to any injustice that we see around us.

Spot the error and rewrite correctly : potentail, self-sustaining

potential, self-sustaining

Find out four hidden words from the given word : (Each word should have at least 3 letters.) satellite

satellite – state, late, least, steal

Write the anagrams of the following words :

(i) bleats
(ii) asleep

(i) bleats – stable, tables
(ii) asleep – elapse, please

Replace the underlined phrase with a clause : After finishing her studies, she ran off to play.

After she had finished her studies, she ran off to play.She finished her studies 1 and ran off to play.

Pick out the non-finite verb from the following sentence :

Why are we so embarrassed to recognize our own strength?

to recognize

Pick out the pronouns from the sentence :

She replied, “I want to live in a developed India.”

She

Rewrite as a negative sentence :

Our media is obsessed with only bad news and failures.

Our media is obsessed with nothing but bad news and failures.

Use the following word as a noun and a verb in two separate sentences :

attack

(i) The attack came when Aurangzeb had least expected it. (norm)
(ii) Aurangzeb was attacked when he least expected it. (verb)

 2.5 The Happy Prince 

Textbook Questions and Answers

1. There are different types of short stories. Use a dictionary/the Internet and find out what each of the following types refers to:

(a) fable :
(b) anecdote :
(c) fairy tale :
(d) parable :
(e) tragedy :
(f) humorous story :
(g) detective story :
(h) myth :

Answer:

(a) fable: moral bearing story with animal characters.
(b) anecdote: short amusing account of an incident.
(c) fairy tale: having supernatural characters/a moral for children.
(d) parable: having religious base and a message or moral.
(e) tragedy: serious and ends in a tragedy.
(f) humorous story: causing laughter and amusement; comic.
(g) detective story: the plot revolves around the investigation and solving of a crime/s.
(h) myth: originated in ancient times, authorship unknown.

2. Have you heard of birds that fly from one part of the world to another in small or large flocks?

They are called Migratory birds. Discuss and write down two reasons why they migrate and return.

Migratory birds’ migrate for food and for warmth. They return when the food supplies in their home area stabilize and winter changes to summer again.

3. Speech or dialogues can be reported in two ways

 Direct and Indirect.
When the exact words of the speaker are reported we call it Direct Speech. When the exact words of the speaker are not reported, but just its contents we call it Indirect Speech.
Direct Speech: Amar said, “I shall come to meet you, tomorrow, Sanket.”
Indirect Speech: Amar told Sanket that he would go to meet him, the next day.
Note down the changes you observe in the Indirect Speech.

There are no inverted commas in j Indirect Speech.
The verb changes in Indirect ) Speech.
There is a change in the adverb in Indirect Speech.
The word‘that’is added in Indirect Speech.

1. Say whether these sentences are true or false and correct the false ones.

The writer of the story is Wiiliam Blake.

False
The writer of the story is Oscar wild.

Everyone admired the statue of the Happy Prince.

True

The mother was working, when the Swallow brought the yellow jewel.

False
The mother was sleeping when the Swallow brought the yellow jewel.

The two best things the servants brought to God were gold and jewel stones.

False
The two best things the servants brought to God were broken heart and dead bird.

Find from the story the Homophones of the following words:

(Words that sound, the same, but differ in spellings and meanings.)

Answer:
a. weak – week
b. their – there
c. blew – blue
d. sea – see
e. read – – red
f. waste – waist
g. know – no
h. knot – not
i. threw – through
j. right – write

3. Answer the given questions in your own words:

Where was the Happy Prince’s statue located?

The Happy Prince statue located high above the city.

Why did the swallow decide to stay under the statue of the Happy Prince at night?

The Swallow decided to stay under the statue of the Happy Prince at night because it was high up, and so there was plenty of fresh air.

Why was the Prince sad?

The Prince was sad to see all unhappiess of the city.

What was the first task given to the Swallow?

The Happy Prince asked the Swallow to take the great red jewel from his waist and give it to a poor woman whose son was ill and hungry. This was the Swallow’s first task.

To whom did the Prince gift the two gemstones of his eyes?

The prince gave one of the two gemstones of his eyes to a Door little girl whose eggs had fallen to the ground and broken.

What decision did the Swallow finally make? Was it a wise one? Comment.

The Swallow finally decided not to go to Egypt but to remain with the Happy Prince, whom he loved very much. It may not have been a wise decision because it led to the death of the Swallow, but it was a decision made from the heart and was an emotional decision that was rewarded in heaven.

Why did the Swallow finally decide not to leave the Prince?

The Swallow finally decided not to leave the prince because he loved him very much.

What message do you get from this story?

The message that we get from this story is that we should be loyal, generous, and compassionate. We will not only get peace when on earth but will also get appreciation and reward in heaven.

4. Infinitives, Participles, Gerunds:

(a) Infinitives
In the sentences ‘1 have to study’ and ‘ I must study’, ‘study’ is in the infinitive form, because it does not take -s, -es or -cd aller it even if the number or person of the Subject changes.
Infinitives are generally preceded by ‘to’ or sometimes by a modal auxiliary.

(b) Participles
In the sentences ‘She dived into the swimming pool’ and ‘The writing table is in a mess’ ‘Swimming’ and ‘writing’ are in the verb + ing form and function as Adjectives. These are Present Pcirticiples. In the sentences, ‘The police recovered the stolen jewels’ and ‘He bandaged his
bruised arm’, stolen and bruised are in the verb + en I ed form and function as Adjectives.

(c) Gerunds
In the sentences, ‘I love swimming’ and ‘Reading is a good habit’, the verb + ing form fuction as Nouns (as the Subject or Object). These are called Verbal Nouns or Gerunds.

Say whether the underlined are Infinitives/Participles (Present or Past) Gerunds.

I wish to go to Egypt.

Infinitive

They liked his written stories.

Participle(past)

He is trying to finish a story.

Infinitive

Suffering is stranger than anything.

Gerund

The dying swallow fell at his feet.

Participle(Present)

He began to cry.

Infinitive

He watched the working seamen

Participle(Present)

Write the following dialogues from the story in the Indirect Speech:

(a) ‘Who are you?’ asked the bird. ‘I am the Happy Prince.’
‘Then why are you crying? I am wet with your tears.’

(b) The Happy Prince looked very sad, and the little Swallow was sorry for him. ‘It is very cold here,’ he said ‘but I will stay with you for one night. Tomorrow I will take the jewel.’
‘Thank you, little bird,’ said the prince.

(c) ‘Little bird, little bird,’ said the prince, ‘please will you stay with me for one more night?’
‘My friends arc waiting for me.’ answered the bird.

(d) Under a bridge, two little boys were lying close together to keep warm.
‘We are so hungry!’ they said. ‘You cannot lie there!’ shouted a guard.

(e) ‘Goodbye, dear prince!’ he said.
‘I urn glad that you are going to Egypt,’ said the prince. ‘You have stayed too long.’I am not going to Egypt,’ said the Swallow. ‘I am going to the House of God’

Divide the story into parts. Make 4 groups in your class. Each group should take one of the 4 parts to convert the story into a play and enact your part.


7. If you could change the end of the story i.e. after the Swallow refused to fly to Egypt. how would you change it? Summarise your idea in 10 to 12 lines.


Answer:

Summary of the idea : A MIRACLE

The Swallow, battling the bitter cold, refuses to fly to Egypt and continues to live with the prince to support him in his time of need. God sees this love and friendship among the two and decides to do something. He restores the prince to his glory. The Happy Prince becomes golden and beautiful once again and is admired by all. The little Swallow develops extra layers of feathers to protect him from the cold, and the two continue to live with each other. The prince continues to be generous, but his wealth never diminishes. The Swallow is his messenger and informant. They become immortal. The two realize that these miracles are the work of God and they look towards heaven to thank God.

Think of one of your favorite stories. Fill in the following facts about the story:

Name of the story:
Type of story:
Setting (time and place):
ImportQnt characters:
Theme/Plot:
Conflict/Dilemmu:
Solution:
End:

Answer:

Name of the story: Pride and Prejudice
Type of story: Romantic/Social
Setting (time and place): the early 1800s in England
Important characters: Elizabeth and Jane Bennet, Mrs. Bennet, Darcy.
Theme/Plot: The emotional development of the main characters.
Conflict/Dilemma: Darcy is rich and proud Elizabeth is strongly prejudiced against him. Their status and
lifestyles differ. However, they are attracted to each other.
Solution: How they overcome their prejudices and come together forms the main story of the novel.
End: Darcy and Elizabeth overcome their prejudices and their true emotions come through. The end is a happy one with everything ending well.

Say whether the following sentences are True or False and correct the false ones:

One night a little swallow flew over the city with his friends.

False
Corrected Sentence: One night a little l swallow flew alone over the city

The Happy Prince saw that the Swallow was crying.

False
Corrected Sentence: The Swallow saw that the Happy Prince was crying.

The Swallow felt sorry for the Happy Prince.

True

Complete the following:

The Happy Prince’s statue was located ______.

high above the city

The drops that fell on the swallow were ______.

the tears from the eyes of the Happy Prince

The Swallow decided to stay under the statue of the Happy Prince at night ; because ______.

it was high up, and so there was ; plenty of fresh air

The Prince was sad _________.

to see all the unhappiness of the city

The first gift from the Happy Prince was _______.

a great red jewel from his waist

he Swallow felt warm because ______.

he had done a good thing

The clever man was surprised _____.

to see a swallow in the city in winter

The prince gave a _____ one of the two gemstones of his eyes.

poor writer

The writer was trying hard ________.

to complete the story

It was easy to get into the young man’s room because __________.

there was a hole in the roof

The Swallow refused to take off the other eye because _______.

then the prince would not be able to see

The prince gave one of the two gemstones of his eyes to _______.

a poor little girl whose eggs had fallen to the ground and broken

Use the word ‘see’ and its ’ homophones in a single sentence of your own.

sea-see: The children went all the way from Indore to Mumbai to see the sea.

Pick out the finite and non-finite verbs in the following sentence:

And he decided to fly away.

decided-finite verb;
to fly-non- finite verb.

Personal Response:

Have you ever observed statues and admired them? Name some.

I admire statues which Eire artistic or tell us a story. For example, some of the statues of Shivaji are very well carved, with all the details. However, most of the time j statues in India are neglected, and only ! serve as resting places for birds.

Give reasons:

The mother was forced to ignore her ailing son.

The mother was forced to ignore her ailing son as she did not have money to buy food, and could only give him water from the river. She was busy making a ; dress for one of the queen’s ladies. After doing this, she was so tired that she fell asleep.

What was the first task given to the Swallow?

The Happy Prince asked the Swallow to take the great red jewel from his waist and give it to a poor woman whose son was ill and hungry. This was the Swallow’s first task.

The Swallow wished to go to Egypt.

It was winter, and it would soon begin snowing. The Swallow would not be able to bear this cold weather. So, he wished to go to Egypt where the sun was warm and the leaves were green.

Find from the passage the Homophones of the following words:

read
threw

Answer:

read-red
threw-through

Write the noun forms of the following words:

poor
flew
warm
ill

Answer:

poverty
flight
warmth
illness

Why was the writer unable to complete his story?

The writer was very cold, weak and hungry. There was no fire in his room. Due to all these reasons, he was unable to complete his story.

What did the writer conclude when he saw the blue jewel?

When the writer saw the blue jewel, he concluded that it was a gift from someone who had read and liked his books.

Rewrite as an affirmative sentence:

But he is very cold and he cannot write.

But he is very cold and he is unable to write.

Personal Response:

Have you seen birds migrating/flying in groups or information?

Yes, I have. I did not realize what it meant in the beginning, but later I saw a documentary film about migratory birds. I like the way they fly in a formation, all of them flying at the same speed. I often wonder how they know where to go and what to do.

Complete the table and write who said the given words and to whom:

The words Who said them To whom
(1) You cannot see now
(2) She has no money to take home.
(3) This is a beautiful piece of glass!
(4) You must go to Egypt

Answer:

The words - Who said them. - To whom
(1) You cannot see now - The Swallow - The prince
(2) She has no money to take home. - The prince - The Swallow
(3) This is a beautiful piece of glass! - The little girl - The Swallow
(4) You must go to Egypt - The prince- The Swallow

Complete the following

Positive       Comparative     Superlative
strange         stranger                strangest
beautiful   more beautiful   most beautiful
dear                dearer                  dearest
wonderful more wonderful   most wonderful

Underline the pronouns in the following sentences:

She is selling eggs. her eggs have fallen on the ground and they are broken.

She is selling eggs. Her eggs have fallen on the ground and they are broken.

“I will stay with you,” repeated the Swallow, and he slept at the Prince’s feet.

I will stay with you,” repeated the Swallow, and he slept at the Prince’s feet.

Personal Response:

How does the suffering of other people affect you?

I feel very bad when I see someone suffering. I don’t like to see even animals suffer, and I often have fights with boys who are cruel to animals. If I see someone suffering, I try to help them if it is possible. I plan to become a doctor when I grow up so that I can help those who are in pain.

Complete the table and write who said the given words to whom:

The words Who said them To whom
(1) You cannot lie there!
(2) Yes, you have brought the right things.

The words Who said them   To whom
(1) You cannot lie there! - A guard - Two little boys
(2) Yes, you have brought the right things.- God   - His servants

Describe the sufferings that the Swallow discovered and reported to the prince.

The Swallow saw poor people sitting at the gate. He flew into the dark streets, where he saw hungry and sad children. Many children were cold and were treated badly by the guards in the city. These were the sufferings that the Swallow discovered and reported to the prince.

In what state did the important man in the city find the statue?

The important man in the city found the statue looking dull. The red stone and the gemstones of the eyes had disappeared. The statue was not golden any longer, and looked like that of a beggar. There was also a dead swallow at the feet of the statue.

Why did the servants of God take the broken heart and the dead bird to God?

The servants of God took the broken heart and the dead bird to God because they were the two best things in the city.

Why did the Swallow finally decide not to leave the prince?

The Swallow finally decided not to leave the prince because he loved him very much.

What decision did the Swallow ; finally make? Was it a wise one? Comment.

The Swallow finally decided not to go to Egypt but to remain with the Happy Prince, whom he loved very much. It may not have been a wise decision because it led to the death of the Swallow but it was a decision made from the heart, and was an emotional decision which was rewarded in heaven.

What, do you think, was the part of the statue which did not melt?

The part of the statue which did not melt was the heart of the Happy Prince.

What message do you get from this story?

The message that we get from this story is that we should be loyal,generous and compassionate. We will not only get peace when on earth but will also get appreciation and reward in heaven.

Do as directed:

Pick out two compound words from the lesson.

bedroom, daytime

Use the following phrase in your own sentence : to get in

The thief found it difficult to get in through the narrow opening.

Underline the non-finite verb and say what type it is :

The boy is crying and his mother is so unhappy.
crying – present participle


Find out four hidden words from the given word : (Each word should have at least 3 letters.)

flower

flower: lower, flow, wolf, wore

Use the following word and its homophone in a single sentence : heard

The lion heard the herd of buffaloes chasing him.

Rewrite using a clause in place of the underlined phrase :

I played with my friends in a very beautiful garden.

I played with my friends in a garden which was very beautiful.

Rewrite as an affirmative \ sentence :

I did not know what lay on the other l side.

I was unaware of what lay on the j other side.

Punctuate :

I will stay here he thought it is high up so there is plenty of fresh air :

“I will stay here,” he thought. “It is high up, so there is plenty of fresh air.”

Pick out the modal auxiliary and state its function :

I  must find another place.

I must find another place, (must- indicates compulsion.)

Identify the type of sentence:

Tell me what you see there.

Imperative sentence




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