Maharashtra board 7th std English Balbharati solutions unit 2

 Maharashtra state board 7th std English Balbharati solutions

Unit 2

MAHARASHTRA BOARD 7TH STD ENGLISH BAL BHARATI SOLUTIONS Unit 2


2.1 From a Railway Carriage

Answer the following questions

Read the poem aloud with proper rhythm.

What does the rhythm remind you of?

Find pairs of rhyming words from the poem.

witches – ditches, battle – cattle, plain – rain – again, eye – by, scrambles – brambles, gazes – daisies, road – load, river – ever.

The sights seen through a railway carriage mentioned in the first stanza.

The sights seen through a railway carriage mentioned in the first stanza are bridges, houses, hedges, ditches, horses and cattle in the meadows. 

The sights mentioned in the second stanza.

The sights seen in the second stanza are hills, plains and painted stations. 

The sights mentioned in the third stanza.

The sights mentioned in the third stanza are a child clambering and scrambling to gather brambles, a tramp gazing at the train in wonder and green creepers for stringing the daisies. 

Think and answer:

Why are the sights said to ‘fly’?

The sights are said to ‘fly’ because the poet is sitting in a fast-moving train and all the beautiful scenes he gets to see as glimpses just rush past him and disappear because of the speed of the train. 

Does the last line make you happy or sad? Why?

The last line ‘and gone forever’ makes me feel sad because all the pleasure and happiness got from enjoying the beauty of nature comes to an end and disappears forever as the railway carriage speeds ahead. 

List the lines that begin with ‘Here’ or ‘And here’.

Also list the sentences or phrases that begin with ‘And there’.

These phrases and sentences tell us about things that appear one after the other as the carriage moves. Can we tell which ones are closer to the train and which ones are at a distance? How? 

List the lines that begin with ‘Here’ or ‘And there’.
Also list the sentences or phrases that begin with ‘And there’.
The lines that begin with ‘Here’ or ‘And here’. ‘Here’ is an adverb which suggests ‘closeness’ of an object. 
  1. Here is a child.
  2. Here is a tramp.
  3. Here is a cart.
  4. Here is a mill.

The above phrases show closeness to the train. ‘There’ is an adverb which suggests ‘distance’ of an object. 

And there is the green.
And there is a river.

The above phrases show distance. 

Read the following:

From A Railway Carriage Exercises 
Read the following:

Charging along like troops in a battle
Fly as thick as driving rain

Using your imagination, write one or two comparisons each with:

i. like… 

This house looks like a castle.
Her cheeks are red like a rose.
He runs like a horse.
The child chattered like a magpie
ii. as… as 

He is as smart as a fox.
He is as big as an elephant.
He is as funny as a monkey.
Our soldiers are as brave as lions.

Write about the sights you may see from a bus or an aeroplane. You may write it in the form of a short poem.

The Red Bus
I’m out sightseeing in the red bus
With people around making a lot of fuss
I know I’m going to see wonderful sights
That’ll soar me to the heights
The greenery
The scenery
Oh! The wonderful luxury
Of travelling in the red, red bus. 

Answer the following questions.

What is the speed of the railway carriage compared to?

The speed of the railway carriage is compared to the speed of fairies and witches. 

Why is the child clambering and scrambling?

The child is clambering and scrambling to collect brambles. 

What does the rhythm of the poem remind you of?

The rhythm of the poem reminds me of the rhythm of the train.

Have you travelled during a rainy day? What was your experience?

Yes, I have travelled during the rainy season. Travelling on a rainy day is an awesome experience. You actually come in contact with nature’s beauty. The smell of the wet earth, the greenery, the colourful flowers, the waterfalls, etc. We get to see nature at its best. 

Reading Skills and Poetic Device 

Read the following extract and do the activities. 

What flies as thick as driving rain?

(Choose the right alternative)
i. Bridges and houses.
ii. Hill and plain.
iii. Hedges and ditches.

> Hill and plain. 

How do the sights of the hills and plains move?

The sights of the hills and plains move as thick as driving rain. 

What does the poet see the child doing?

The poet sees the child clambering and scrambling and gathering brambles all by himself. 

To what is the charging train compared?

The charging train is compared to troops in a battle. 

Pick out two pairs of rhyming words from the 1st stanza.

witches – ditches, battle – cattle. 

Name the figure of speech for the following line.

“Faster than fairies, faster than witches” 

Repetition: The word ‘faster’ is repeated for poetic effect, or
Antithesis: The opposite words ‘fairies’ and ‘witches’ are used in the same line for better poetic effect.

Pick out a word from the extract which means ‘a woman having evil magical powers’.

Witch. 

From a Railway Carriage Summary in English

‘From a Railway Carriage’ written by R. L. Stevenson describes the scenes he sees through the window of a fast moving train. He is so amazed at the speed of the train and tries to grasp every glimpse he sees because they are out of sight the very next moment. The train moves with such great speed that everything he sees seems to be moving. 
‘From a Railway Carriage’ written by Robert Louis Stevenson is a poem in which he shares his experience of a railway journey with us.

 2.2 The Souvenir 

 Textbook Questions and Answers

 Guess the meaning of the following words:

 exorbitantly, precautions, unauthorised, repeatedly, enthusiastically

Write the smaller and related words that you see within these words.

  • (i) exorbitantly (adv) – excessively, smaller words – orbit, bit, ant.
  • related words – exorbitant.

  • (ii) precaution (n) – to take care beforehand.
  • smaller words – caution, cat, rat, pet, ear, action, reaction.
  • related word – caution

  • (iii) unauthorised (adj) – having no authority.
  • smaller word – author, ant, rise, his, this, north, said
  • related words – authorise, authorised.

  • (iv) repeatedly (adv) – done several times; again and again.
  • smaller words – repeat, pet, eat, ate, pat, rat, tape, trade
  • related words – repeat, repeated.

  • (v) enthusiastically (adv) – done in an excited and motivated manner.
  • smaller words – enthusiastic, thus, ally, silly, thin, ten
  • related words – enthusiast, enthusiastic, enthusiastical.

Collective nouns also have singular and plural forms.

Examples:

class – classes, herd – herds, team – teams.

Some more examples-

arrm armies council – councils
school – schools group – groups
society – societies cabinet – cabinets
department – departments, etc
Collective Nouns (examples)

  • an army ol ants
  • a flight of birds
  • a school of hsh
  • a shoal ol hsh
  • a choir ot singers
  • a band of musicians
  • a crew of sailors
  • a troupe of artists/dancers
  • an audience of listeners
  • a litter of puppies/kittens
  • a galaxy of stars
  • a group of islands
  • a forest of trees
  • an album of stamps/autographs/photographs

 Use the details given in the story and your imagination and prepare a timetable for the trip to the moon

 Say whether the following statements are right or wrong.

Sayali was travelling in space for the first time.
Wrong.

Many changes had occurred on the earth in the hundred years before Sayali’s trip to the moon.
Correct

There were no old cities left on the earth.

Correct

Sayali’s mother did not want her to go on the trip.

Correct

There were no human settlements on the moon.

Correct

Sayali made a hasty purchase.

Wrong

Sayali did not understand the mistake she had made.

Correct

Imagine you are Sayali. Write your diary for eveiy day of your trip to the moon, and for the day you gave the earrings to your mother.

Monday
28th May, 2018
11.30 pm

Dear Diary,
After spending the day on walking the soil of the moon, it feels joyous and I am pleases to have such a trip.
The weather there is cold, so every time I go there. I carry some warm clothes with me.
Today I bought an earning for my mother. When I gave it to her she was very happy and thrilled to see them. She even said ‘Sayali’, ‘I am proud of you’.
She said that it was the most beautiful gift. She has ever got. The earnings was also very beautiful. Well t was a peaceful day for me.

Good night

 Discuss: In the story, human settlements are mentioned but not cities or villages. Why is it so?

Gather more information about the following from your Science textbook, the internet and other sources.
  1.  Gravitational force
  2.  View of the sky when you are on the moon.
  3.  Chandrayaan mission of India.

 You want to start human settlement somewhere else other than the earth, in the universe. Will you select a star or a planet? Why? What features supporting life will you look for? Try to find answers to such questions and make a presentalion using scientific information and your imagination.

 Language Study: Common nouns – 2: Some nouns stand for a number of persons
or things taken together. They are called collective nouns.

Examples: class (a class of sixty students), a herd of cattle, a flock of sheep,
a team of players, a list of names.

Collective nouns also have singular and plural forms.
Examples: class-classes, herd-herds, team-teams

Answer the following questions.

In what time periods is the story taking place? given to the children?

The story is taking place in 2069, somewhere closer to the 22nd century.

Where does Sayali live?

Sayali lives on the earth.

What were the two important instructions

The two important instructions were:
1. To be extremely careful while roaming outside the human settlements on the moon because a gravitational force equivalent to that of the earth had been artificially maintained in the human settlements but outside the settlements the gravitational force of the moon was at work.
2. To buy articles only from the shops which were inside the dome shaped settlements because there the articles would be genuine and not to buy anything from the unauthorised shops outside the settlement.

Imagine you are landing on the moon. What would be your feelings?

For me the moon always looked like a huge cotton ball. Now that I have got a chance to go on the moon and as I am getting closer, I can see the moon has a lot of craters. I am so excited to be landing on the moon and anxious too as to what it would be like when I step on the moon. I am looking forward to walking on the moon; I have heard that we do not actually walk but bounce on the moon because of its lack of gravitational force. I am waiting to walk on the moon and experience the feel of flying while walking.

Was Sayali making a mistake when she bought earrings?

Yes, Sayali was making a mistake when she bought the earrings.

What instructions had she ignored?

She had been instructed to buy articles only from the shops which were inside the dome shaped settlements which were genuine and not to buy anything from the unauthorised shops outside the settlement. She ignored these instructions and purchased from outside the settlement.

Why had the earrings become so heavy on the earth?

Sayali purchased the earrings from outside the human settlement where the moon’s gravitational force was at work. The gravitational force of the moon made the earrings light on the moon, but it became very heavy on the earth because of the earth’s gravitational force.

Which was the longest trip during mummy’s childhood?

During mummy’s childhood the longest trip meant going to Europe.

What did the dome shaped settlements on the moon resemble?

The dome shaped settlements on the moon resembled the igloos of the Eskimos.

Where were the children escorted to, on the moon?

The children were escorted through an airtight tunnel to the settlement at the Neil Armstrong base on the moon.

Quote the first words uttered by a human on the moon. Who uttered them and when?

The first words uttered by a human on the moon was, ‘One small step, for a man, one giant leap for mankind’.
These words were uttered by Neil Armstrong who was the first man to put his foot on the moon.

Say whether the following statements are right or wrong.

> Sayali was travelling in space for the first time.
> Many changes had occurred on the earth in the hundred years before Sayali’s trip to the moon.
> There were no old cities left on the earth.
Sayali’s mother did not want her to go on the trip.
> There were no human settlements on the moon.
> Sayali made a hasty purchase.
>Sayali did not understand the mistake she had made.

Answers

Right
Right
Wrong
Wrong
Wrong
Right
Wrong.

Discuss: In the story, human settlements are mentioned but not cities or villages. Why is it so?

There are no cities or villages on the moon but just human settlements because according to me people have just started settling on the moon, making it their home.

State whether the statements true or false.
1. The three days of the trip were going to be part of the daytime on the moon.
2. The stars are seen rarely and very brightly on the earth.
Answer:
 1. False
 2. False.
 
Choose the correct answer.

In the moon sky the earth looked times bigger than the moon in the earth sky.

(a) Seventy
(b) Thirteen
(c) Seventeen
Answer:
(b) Thirteen

What did the beautiful enchanting view make Sayali and her friends feel?

The beautiful enchanting view made Sayali and her friends feel ecstatic.

What was special about the sky watch on the moon?

The speciality about the sky watch was that the stars shone dazzling bright against the dark background of the moon sky because there is no atmosphere on the moon.

What does it tell you about the conditions on the earth at that time?

The conditions on the earth at that time was usually foggy and the stars were seen rarely and only very faintly.

Pick out a word from the extract which means – ‘not clear’.

Foggy

Find the odd man out:

Moon, stars, earth, bright

Bright – the rest are nouns

Pick out the adjective.

They fell asleep feeling happy, excited and comfortable at the same time.

Asleep, happy, excited, comfortable.

The most attractive view was that of the disc of the earth! (State the kind of sentence)

Exclamatory.

Pick out two compound words from the extract.

background, comfortable, daylight, night-time.

It was seventy times brighter. (Add question tag)

It was seventy times brighter, wasn’t it?

How does the moon look to you from the earth?

To me the moon looks like a round shiny ball of cotton. Sometimes, I feel that the moon looks like a pizza layered with cheese. I love to look at the full moon and dream of being there someday.

Fill in the blanks:

1. The second day’s attraction was a ………. on the moon!
2. ………… and her friends had travelled far and wide and had done a lot of sight-seeing.
Answer:
 1. circus
 2. Sayali

State whether the following statements are true or false.

1. One unique feature of the circus was the seating arrangement.
2.The guide had assigned them the task of writing stories about the circus.
Answer:
1. True
2. False

Where did the teacher take the students on the second day?

The teacher took the students to the circus on the moon on the second day.

What was the unique feature of the circus?

The unique feature of the circus was the seating arrangement.

What were the special attractions of the circus?

The special attractions of the circus were high jumps and long jumps.

What could be the reason behind the unique seating arrangement?

The unique seating arrangement with the spectators sitting inside the tent and the circus going on outside could be because the gravitational force in the tents was artificially maintained according to the earth’s gravitational force which helped the spectators to remain in one place without bouncing around and watching the circus which was taking place outside the tent where the gravitational force of the moon was at work. This helped the performers perform unique stunts as well.

Identify the plurals of the following words.

friend - friends
metre - meters
feature - features
tent - tents
teacher - teacher

Pick out compound words from the passage.

outside, self-study, sight-seeing

One gymnast jumped twenty seven metres high! (Add a question tag)

One gymnast jumped twenty seven metres high, didn’t he?

It was expected that the students should spend some time for self-study.(Frame a ‘Wh’ question so as to get the underlinedwords as the answer.)

What was expected from they students?

What would be the overall effects of having no atmosphere?

  • Atmosphere is a protective layer of gases that envelopes the earth. It consists of a number of gases including nitrogen, oxygen and many more.
  • Life depends on the atmosphere.
  • If there was no atmosphere the intense light and harmful radiation of the sun would harm life.
  • Every creature depending on oxygen from the smallest ant to the biggest whales would perish. There
  • would be no oceans because in the absence of atmosphere, oceans would just evaporate due to the scorching heat of the sun.
  • No water for living because there would be no water-cycle.
  • The temperature would be so high that everything would get burnt.
  • Atmosphere protects asteroid strikes on the earth.
  • To sum it up, without atmosphere there would be no life.

Collective noun: Collective noun is the name given to a number of persons, animals or things taken as a whole, (one single collective unit)
Examples:

Persons – staff, team, crowd, jury, committee, gang, crew, choir, class
Animals- flock, herd, shoal, swarm, pride, pack, brood
Things – bunch, pile, stack, flight, pile collection, bouquet, library
Make a collection of collective nouns.

  • an army of soldiers
  • a fleet of ships
  • a brood of chickens
  • a collection of pictures/stamps
  • a flight of steps
  • a pride of lions
  • apackof wolves
  • a litter of puppies/kittens
  • a bunch of keys/flowers
  • a gang/band of thieves

Punctuate the following sentences.

a Jam packed three day’s programme awaited the children on the moon
be careful when you walk dear children don’t run or sprint you will fall
she exclaimed hello dear how am i going to wear such heavy earrings
everyone was looking forward to this visit to the historical monument it was the oldest place in the history of man on the moon

Answer:

A jam-packed three day’s programme awaited the children on the moon.
“Be careful when you walk, dear children; don’t run, or sprint, you will fall!”
She exclaimed, “Hello dear, how am I going to wear such heavy earrings?”
Everyone was looking forward to this visit to the historical monument – it was the oldest place in the history of man on the moon.

Find out the collective words for the following:
1. A …….. of shoes.
 2. A ………. of mountains.
3. A ………… of ships.
4. A ………….. of flowers.
5. A ……….. of lies.
6. A ………… of wild animals.

pair, range, fleet, bouquet, pack, zoo

Identify the plurals of the following.

company - companies
firm - firms
family - families
crowd - crowds
gang - gangs

Do as directed.

Remembering the incident made her laugh even now. (Frame a ‘Wh’ question so as to get the underlined words as the answer)

What made her laugh even now?

She had read the description. (Change the voice)

The description had been read by her.

The clouds had disappeared, the stars were shining bright. (Use ‘not only … but also’)

Not only had the clouds disappeared but also the stars were also shining bright.

Sayali immediately realized her mistake. (Identify the part of speech for the underlined word)

immediately – adverb.

Her mother picked up the earrings. (Change the voice)

The earrings were picked up by her mother.

Give me those red earrings. (Kind of sentence)

Imperative sentence.

High jumps and long jumps were the special attractions. (Use ‘not only … but also’)

Not only high jumps but also long jumps were the special attractions.

A hundred years ago Neil Armstrong had landed at this place. (Frame a question – begin with ’When …’)

When had Neil Armstrong landed at this place?

Give me those red earrings. (Add a question tag)

Give me those red earrings, will you/won’t you?

Use a prefix to get the opposite of:

experience × inexperience
contented × discontented
appeared × disappeared
visible × invisible
comfortable × uncomfortable
happy × unhappy
paid × unpaid
spent × unspent

Diary Writing

Write your diary everyday describing your trip to the moon, and also about the day you gifted the earrings to your mother.
Answer:
11th June, 2019
Sunday
We landed safely on the moon. It was a wonderful experience. In the space shuttle I was excited as well as anxious. When we alighted from the space shuttle on the moon, it was a feeling which cannot be expressed in words. On the first day we were taken to the Neil Armstrong base. We were instructed about the things we could and could not do.

We were told about the differences in the gravitational force on the moon and in the human settlement on the moon. We were a part of the night time on the moon. The stars shone brightly like diamonds. We also saw the earth from the moon. The earth looked thirteen times bigger than the moon and seventy times brighter. The view was so enchanting that we were ecstatic.
12th June, 2019
Monday

We woke up early and got ready for our second day’s attraction. We saw a circus show on the moon! The unique feature of the circus was the seating arrangement. We were made to sit inside the tent and the circus was going on outside the tent. High jumps and long jumps were the main attraction. We also visited various settlements and jotted down important points which would help us in writing an essay on our trip to the moon. My friends and I travelled a lot and did a lot of sight-seeing.
13th June, 2019
Tuesday

Being excited, we were ready before the others. Our teacher took us to that place of historical importance where Neil Armstrong had landed in Apollo II on 20th July, 1969, the space flight that helped the 1st two humans walk on the moon. It was Neil Armstrong who was the first human being to put his foot on the moon. We got to see the first footprint of Neil Armstrong which has been preserved on the moon land. The first words uttered by a human on the moon is also carved at the base of Neil Armstrong’s statue.

We were made to wear space suits for the first time as we were going to roam on the moon experiencing its gravitational force. My friends purchased souvenirs for their families and friends because the next day we were to start our return journey. How these three days have flown by! I am carrying back memories to last a life time.
15th June, 2019
Thursday

I was so excited on the moon that I had not thought of any of my family members, not even mummy! How could I forget her! I remembered mummy just before leaving for the earth, I felt very guilty. In my haste to please my mother, I forgot the instructions given by our escorts and purchased a beautiful pair of red earrings from a shopkeeper outside the settlement. After returning to the earth, the first thing I did was to show mummy the earrings I had brought for her. Mummy picked up the earrings to admire it and found them very heavy. It was then that I realised the blunder I had done. Now those earrings are kept as souvenirs from the moon in our show case.

Prepare a timetable for a trip to the moon. Use your imagination

  • Plan ahead before making the trip.
  • Research your destination and know what to expect.
  • Get the necessary passport/documents.
  • Check and get immunization if necessary.
  • Keep updated with the current happenings on the moon.
  • Learn and understand what should be done/ not done on the moon.
  • Have a communication plan with family and friends at home.
  • Pack wisely. The lighter the better. Take things you like to wear and plan on wearing it several times.
  • Have a good attitude. Keep your mind open.
  • Don’t complain.
  • Be an observer not a judge. Enjoy your trip.

The Souvenir Summary in English


‘The Souvenir’ written by Lakshman Londhe is a story in the form of a science fiction.
'The Souvenir’ is a story which is a science fiction. A science fiction deals with world that differs from our own as a result of new scientific discoveries, new technologies or different social systems. It is sometimes hard to distinguish science fiction from fantasy. Through this story the writer has tried to tell us the changes which would have taken place by 2069 because of new technologies.
‘The Souvenir’ written by Lakshman Londhe is a story in the form of a science fiction.
'The Souvenir’ is a story which is a science fiction. A science fiction deals with world that differs from our own as a result of new scientific discoveries, new technologies or different social systems. It is sometimes hard to distinguish science fiction from fantasy. Through this story the writer has tried to tell us the changes which would have taken place by 2069 because of new technologies.

 2.3 Abdul Becomes a Courtier 

Textbook Questions and Answers

From the play, find all the words that are related to the following.

knowledge and learning, books, works
Add other related words you know to the list.

knowledge and learning
books
works

Student, smart, thirst for knowledge, learned, philosophy, astronomy, arabic, persian, scholar, intellectual, sagacious, astute, university, degree.
Student, smart, knowledge, learned, scholar, words, e-book.
Merchant, serve, clerk, pay, office, poultry, keeper, salary, job.

Discuss the following.

(a) Abdul gets what he wants in the end. What is the major factor that contributes to this success?
His learning of books
His intelligence
His attitude
His relations with other people
His luck

His attitude

The Emperor says he had realised earlier that Abdul has great talent. Does this tally with his actions? Give your opinion.

No, it does not. But according to me the Emperor wanted to know whether Abdul could put all his knowledge into practical use.

Write a letter from Abdul to the Emperor, requesting the Emperor to give Abdul a suitable job.

Your Royal Highness,
I, Abdul, am a subject in your kingdom. I have learnt everything books could teach me. I would like to be at your service.
I will serve you with all the knowledge, I have gained, if your royal highness will give me the opportunity. All my knowledge would really be of great use and if given a chance I will do everything I can to the best of my ability. Hoping and awaiting a positive reply. Thanking you in anticipation.
Your loyal subject,
XYZ (Abdul)

Rewrite the play in the form of a story.

Abdul, the Achiever
Once upon a time during the reign of Emperor Akbar, there lived a very humble school teacher. He had an equally humble and down to earth son named Abdul. Abdul dreamt of becoming a scholar. His father could not fund him for the books because they were very costly. His father tried to borrow books from the school library but was unsuccessful. Abdul was disheartened.

He hit upon a brilliant idea to solve his problem. He decided to work for the rich, instead of taking money for services, he requested them to allow him to read the books in their stores. Abdul read and read and became a learned scholar that too one in a million. Now that he had completed his education he aspired to work in the Emperor’s office. The Emperor heard of him and was ready to appoint him. He was first put in charge of the Murgikhana.

Abdul was disappointed at first but then decided to put in his best. His efforts paid him well. The hens were healthier than before. The Emperor was surprised that Abdul had not used any money from the treasury. The Emperor was worried that the hens had died but Abdul told the Emperor that all the hens were in the pink of health because he was feeding them with the left-overs from the Emperor’s kitchen, which was free of cost and something the hens enjoyed and that was the secret of their health.

The Emperor was happy and put him in charge of the library. Abdul was unhappy because he aspired to be a courtier. But he took his job too as a challenge and started making changes in the library. A year later when the Emperor entered the library he was shocked to see that all the books had very expensive covering.

He thought that this would have cost a fortune. Abdul clarified the Emperor’s doubt and told him that it has cost nothing because he used the rich, discarded fabrics of the bags in which requests were sent to the Emperor. Abdul said that he had asked the royal tailors to stitch the jackets and covers for the books. The Emperor was so impressed that he immediately appointed Abdul his courtier.
Moral: Waste not, want not.

Write how you take care of your books.

I see to it that my books are always covered, with my name written on it. I do not throw my books anywhere. I keep them neatly whether in my bag or on my table at home. I do not eat or drink anything with my books in front of me so as to avoid spilling and getting oil stains on my books.

Language Study: Common nouns – 3

 Common nouns can be classified in one more way – concrete nouns and abstract nouns. Concrete nouns stand for things that you can actually touch or see.
 
 Examples : school, house, bags, buttefflies, child.
 Abstract nouns stand for ideas, feelings, qualities, actions, states, etc.
Examples: life, time, goodness, progress, kindness, childhood, honesty, mathematics

Can you spot at least three abstract nouns in the following paragraph?


‘We put the plan of action in motion immediately. We kept it a secret. We wanted to give Mrs Desai a surprise. But her intelligence is really appreciable. She spotted the change within a week.’

Now you know that plural forms of nouns have -s, -es, or -ies at the end. But the plurals of some nouns are formed differently. Look at the following forms.
child – children man – men
tooth – teeth foot – feet
leaf – leaves mouse – mice

Some nouns have the singular and the plural alike.
Examples: sheep, deer.

How did Abdul manage to feed the birds well without spending money?

Abdul was in charge of the Emperor’s ‘Murgikhana’. He fed the birds with the left-overs from the kitchen, like scraps, shells and kitchen waste, which the hens enjoyed. This diet not only made the hens healthy but was also free of cost.

How did the Emperor reward Abdul for his work? Do you think the Emperor’s action was right?

The Emperor rewarded Abdul by making him in charge of the library. Yes, I think the Emperor’s action was right because he wanted to see how well Abdul would handle this task too.

How did Abdul manage to get expensive jackets for the books?

Abdul had noticed that all the formal requests that came to the Emperor were in bags made of the best of fabrics which were discarded. He used these discarded silk, velvet and brocade to make beautiful covers and jackets for the books in the library.

Complete the sentences.


1. Abdul’s father was a ………… .
2. Abdul wanted his father to lend him
Answer:
1. schoolmaster
2. a little gold

How many books could Abdul’s father get for him?

Abdul’s father could not get any books for him.

What does Abdul want to do? How does he plan to do it?

Abdul wants to acquire knowledge and become a scholar. He plans to buy books and study them to rise high and become famous.

What are books and manuscripts compared to?

Books and manuscripts are compared to treasures rare and exclusive.

Frame a sentence with the phrase ‘brighter tomorrow’.

Rohan worked day and night for a brighter tomorrow.

How many books could you get? (Identify the kind of sentence)

Interrogative.

Pick out a word from the extract which means – to hope or to dream.

aspire.

Guess the meaning of ‘a brighter tomorrow’ in context of the play.

A brighter tomorrow means a better or brighter future.

Do you like to read books? Why?

Yes, I like to read books. I like to read books because it helps to increase our knowledge, gives us a lot of information and keeps us occupied when there is nothing to do. For me. books are my best friends.

Abdul got the Royal Tailors to work for making the jackets. What skills does it reflect?


The skill which comes out is making best from waste. It not only saves money but also helps to save the environment.

Complete the sentences.

You appear to be smart,_______________
Quench my______________
I am pleased with you___________________
made a poultry people?"____________

Answers
be my clerk
thirst for knowledge
work and loving care!
Intellectual, sagacious, astute

What request must Abdul have sent to the Emperor?

Abdul must have requested the Emperor to give him a position in his court because he had gained all the knowledge which would help him in the job.

What was the merchant’s reaction to Abdul’s work?

The merchant was very pleased with Abdul’s work and wanted to reward him.

What job did the emperor give Abdul?

The Emperor made Abdul his poultry keeper, in charge of the Royal Murgikhana.

Find words/phrases meaning ‘rare’.

One in a million; a gem; unique

Guess the meaning of ‘a gem’ in the context of this play.

The context ‘a gem’ in the play means someone very precious, of great value.

Find pairs of rhyming words used in this passage.

serve – deserve
clerk – work
care – rare – fair
store – more
learned – yearned
notice – office
prayer – care
scholar – keeper
refuse – use
Persian – million.

Write the noun forms of:

move - movement
direct - direction
explore - exploration
determine - determination
Destitute - destitution
hesitate - hesitation
compel - compulsion
treat - treatment

Can you spot at least three abstract nouns in the following paragraph?

‘We put the plan of action in motion immediately. We kept it a secret. We wanted to give Mrs Desai a surprise. But her intelligence is really appreciable. She spotted the change within a week.

secret, surprise, intelligence.

Now you know that plural forms of nouns have -s, -es or -ies at the end. But the plurals of some nouns are formed differently. Singular :

woman
person
goose
half
wife
potato
cactus
fungus
oasis
syllabus
datum
focus
louse
Answer:

Plural:

women
persons /people
geese
halves
wives
potatoes
cacti
fungi
oases
syllabi/syllabuses
data
foci
lice

More of nouns having singular and plural alike.

  1. news 
  2. aircraft
  3. species
  4. darts
  5. pants
  6. trousers
  7. jeans
  8. glasses
  9. scissors
  10. fish
  11. salmon
  12. headquarters
  13. Chinese

I’m happy to announce, now you are my courtier! (Kind of sentence)

Exclamatory sentence.

The Royal tailors made the jackets. (Change the voice)

The jackets were made by the Royal tailors.

Abdul enters and bows before the Emperor. (Pick out the conjunction and state its kind)

and – coordinating conjunction.

Days passed by, he learned and learned. (Identify the figure of speech and explain)

Repetition: The word ‘learned’ has been repeated for better poetic effect.

I need nothing more. (Identify the figure of speech and explain)

Alliteration: The sound of the letter ‘n’ has been repeated for better poetic effect.

Abdul Becomes a Courtier Summary in English

The story in this lesson revolves around Abdul who is very wise and intelligent and loves reading and learning. His father cannot afford the costly books and so Abdul works and accepts his reward only in kind and that too he asks for nothing more than reading books. He quenches his thirst for knowledge and desires to work in the Emperor’s office. Let us see how he gets this honourable post.The lesson ‘Abdul Becomes a Courtier’ is taken from the series of Akbar and Birbal stories. It has been adapted into the dialogue form by Pratibha Nath who is a wonderful story teller and weaves stories for children.

2.4 How Doth the Little Busy Bee 

Textbook Questions and Answers 

Write the meaning of:

doth, opening (in the context of the poem), cell

Doth: In this poem the meaning of ‘doth’ is the word of old origin,

Meaning of doth: Archaic, third person singular present of do. Doth is a form of the word ‘do’ which is defined as to perform an action. They get back to their nest and relax.
Opening: Meaning of opening is blooming when a plant or tree blooms. It produces flowers. When a flower blooms, it opens.
Cell: Meaning of cell is functional and structural unit of life.
A parody is playful, comic imitation of a writer’s style. A parody is like a verbal cartoon. Compare the original poem and its parody given on page 35 using the following points: 

Compare the original poem and its parody given on page 35 using the following points:

Answer the following questions and write in short, why the parody sounds funny.

What does the bee stand for?

The bee stands for hard-work and positivity 

What does the crocodile stand for?

The crocodile stands for laziness, mischief and negativity.

Why does the bee work hour after hour?

The bee works hour after hour to store the nectar that it collects from the flowers. 

Why does the crocodile work?

The crocodile works only to fill its stomach. 

Is the bee a gentle creature? Is the crocodile gentle?

The bee is a gentle creature. The crocodile is not gentle. 

Desciibe a crocodile in your own words. Which of the words and phrases in the poem will you use In a realistic description?

The crocodile is a large reptile. The crocodile to me looks very frightening, ferocious and ugly. The scaly skin of the crocodile makes me feel very creepy. They have different colours which ranges from brown to grey. Some are greenish-brown in colour. They have sharp teeth and claws. They have big strong jaws. They appear to be grinning because of the way their jaw is placed. The tail of the crocodile is very powerful and it helps the crocodile to swim. Crocodiles can live upto 80 years! 

Note that most of the times well-known works are parodied, because people can enjoy the parody better when they know the original. Try to find more examples of parodies in English or other languages. 
Note that most of the times well-known works are parodied, because people can enjoy the parody better when they know the original. Try to find more examples of parodies in English or other languages. 

What do you like better – the original poem or the parody? Why?

I like the parody. I like the parody because it is funny, interesting and the best part is that it is very easy to memorize. 

Answer the following questions. 

Why does the parody sound funny?

The parody sounds funny because it is just in complete contrast with ‘How doth the little busy bee’. The bee is hard working and positive. She is using every minute fruitfully while in contrast the crocodile is wasting its time doing nothing still manages to keep its stomach full. 

How does the bee build her cell?

The bee builds her cell skilfully. 

What food does the bee make?

The bee makes sweet food. 

Poetic Device:

Make a list of the rhyming words

hour – flower; cell – well

What is the rhyme scheme of the first stanza?

The rhyme scheme of the first stanza is abcb 

What is the rhyme scheme of the second stanza?

The rhyme scheme of the second stanza is abac 

Read the following extract and do the activities. 

Which river is mentioned in the above poem?

River Nile is mentioned in the above poem. 

Whom does the crocodile welcome?

The crocodile welcomes little fishes.
How does the extract portray the crocodile?
The extract portrays the crocodile as a deceiving, idle reptile. 

Write the rhyme scheme for the 2nd stanza.

The rhyme scheme is abab. 

> And welcomes little fishes in, With gently smiling jaws!

Identify the figure of speech of the above lines and explain. 


Personification: The human quality of welcoming and smiling is given to a reptile for better poetic effect.

Exclamation: The line ends with an exclamatory mark

Pick out the rhyming words from the 1st stanza.

Crocodile – Nile, tail – scale 

Writing Skills:

Create a poem of your own on ‘A crocodile’.
Crocodile with a smile
Today I saw a crocodile walking quickly down the isle
I nearly missed a heartbeat, when I saw its clawy feet.
I thought I saw it cry a tear,
This made me really lose my fear. Looking at me it gave a smile
Ohh that’s the reason I ran away a mile. 

How Doth the Little Busy Bee Summary in English

In this poem, the poet Isaac Watts tells us about the busy bee who does not waste time but works day in and day out to collect nectar from the flowers and stores it in the hives built by the bees. The poet appreciates the skills of the bees, used in making the cells and sealing them for future use. The poet is trying to tell us that we should take the example of these small creatures and use our time fruitfully. Isaac Watts 

The parody “How doth the – a small little crocodile” written be Lewis Caroll tries to poke fun at the poem “How doth the little busy bee”. The parody in a humorous way speaks about the idleness and cunningness of a crocodile in contrast to the hardworking bee. The busy bee works all day for its honey but in contrast the crocodile remains idle yet gets his fills‘How doth the little busy bee’ written by Isaac Watts is a poem in which the hard work of the bee is appreciated. A parody is playful comic imitation of a writer’s style. A parody deliberately copies someone or something in an amusing way. It may be simply a humorous imitation of a well-known or popular work.

 2.5 Learn Yoga from Animals

  Textbook Questions and Answers

List the names of body parts used in the passage.

Body parts – navel, spine, shoulder, palm, face, elbow, wrist, chin, abdomen, chest, fingers, jaws, feet, legs, toes, eyes, mouth, head, back, tongue, lungs.

4. List the adverbs/adverbial phrases used in the passage.


to feel physically vibrant
feel mentally sharp
completely at ease
breathe in deeply
slowly raise
come up slowly
come down slowly
inhale immediately
positioned directly below
smoothly arch the spine
adds flexibility
simultaneously arch your back

 Language Study: Conjunctions: A conjunction is a word which joins words or clauses. Look at the following sentences.


 Sahil and Rohan go to school together.
 
Sahil is drawing a picture and Rahul is playing football

In sentence 1, the conjunction ‘and’ joins two words.
 In sentence 2, the conjunction ‘and’ joins two clauses.

 The following are some more examples of conjunction.


Do you like cricket or football?
Your parents will be happy if you study well.
She has not come to school because she is ill.
We played well, but we lost the match.
Tell him that we are going to the playground.
When you are at home, you should help your mother in her work.

Interjections: An interjection is a word that expresses a sudden feeling or emotion. Interjections can express joy, grief, surprise, pain, approval etc.

Look at the following examples.


Hurrah! We have won the game. (Joy)
Ouch! That hurt. (Pain)
Wow! What a nice picture! (Approval)

Underline the conjunctions in the following.

Do you like cricket or football?
Your parents will be happy if you study well.
She has not come to school because she is ill.
We played well, but we lost the match.
Tell him that we are going to the playground.
When you are at home, you should help your mother in her work

Answer the following questions.

Where was yoga perfected?

Yoga was perfected in ancient India.

What does yoga involve?

Yoga involves the mind, body and soul.

What are the benefits of yoga?

The benefits of yoga are attaining concentration, focus and improving flexibility, balance and strength.

How does one feel after doing yoga?

One feels physically vibrant and mentally sharp after doing yoga.

Who enjoys the Lion pose asana? Why?

Simhasana or Lion pose is favourite with young people. Young people love this asana because it requires very little effort.

What pose does the Bhujangasana resemble?

The Bhujangasana is a pose that resembles the posture of a cobra with raised head.

What are the benefits of Bhujangasana? .

Bhujangasana helps us to tone the muscles of our back, strengthens our spine and also benefits the chest and shoulders.

When does the world celebrate International Yoga Day?

The world celebrates International Yoga Day on June 21st every year, since the year 2015.

Why should Marjaryasana be a part of one’s morning yoga routine?

Marjaryasana should be a part of one’s morning yoga routine because it gently stretches the muscles of the abdomen and the back as well as helps to get rid of any body pain.

How does Garudasana benefit the legs?

Garudasana makes the leg muscles stronger and improves the flexibility of joints by loosening the joint muscles.

What are the advantages of practising the Ustrasana?


It strengthens the back.
It boosts mood and energy.
It opens the shoulders, chest and quadriceps.
It helps in improving digestion.
It adds flexibility and strength to the body.

Do you exercise regularly? What form of exercise do you practice ?


I exercise regularly as my parents have always motivated me to stay fit. I go to the local swimming pool everyday to swim in the evening. Swimming is refreshing for the mind and helps to maintain the overall fitness of one’s body.

i. Yoga is a form of…….

ii. Yoga helps us to feel physically vibrant and mentally ……..


i. biomimicry
ii. sharp

What solves human problems with solutions already present in the natural world?


Biomimicry.

What is biomimicry?


Biomimicry is the science of solving human problems with solutions already present in the natural world.

In what way is yoga a form of biomimicry?

Yoga is a form of biomimicry because they comprise typical asanas and poses wherein we emulate mountains, trees, fish, cats and many more animals.

Which problems in our day-to-day life can be solved through biomimicry?


Problems such as stiffness and back pain can be easily solved through biomimicry.

What does biomimicry mean in simple terms?


In simple terms, ‘bio’ means ‘life’ and ‘mimicry’ means ’emulate’.

Give forms of the following words.


Noun - Verb - Adjective
Nature - Naturalise - Natural
Simplicity - Simplify - Simple
Sharpness- Sharpen - Sharp

Pick out a word from the extract which means ‘in the same time period’.


Contemporary.

Experts today are doing a wonderful job. (Begin with ’A wonderful job’)


A wonderful job is being done by the experts today.

This helps us to solve our problems. (Add a question tag)

This helps us to solve our problems, doesn’t it?

Do you think it is necessary to exercise? Why?

Yes. I do think it is necessary to exercise. Exercising keeps us fit and healthy. We feel active and fresh to meet the challenges of the day. It also keeps us mentally positive.

The best time to practise is in the morning. (Begin with ‘The morning’)


The morning is the best time to practise.

Practise in a clean, airy, well-lit room. (Pick out the adjectives in the sentence)


Clean, airy, well-lit.

Relax your muscles completely. (Identify the kind of sentence)

Imperative sentence.

Kneel on the yoga mat and place your hands on the hips. (Pick out the nouns)


Mat, hands, hips.

Fill in with conjunctions.


This is the picture ……….. I painted yesterday.
that

We met the sailors ……….. ship was wrecked.
whose


This is the girl ………… has a melodious voice.
who

………….. you study hard, you will succeed.
If

………… it rains heavily, life comes to a standstill.

When.

Give examples of interjections.

Oops! I broke it. (mistake)
Hushi/Shh! The baby is sleeping, (silence)
Hey! What are you doing here? (surprise)
Oh! You wanted tea and not coffee, (realisation)
Ugh! What a foul smell! (disgust)
Phew! We nearly missed the fall! (relief)
Whew! I cannot believe we have completed on time, (relief/amazement)

Fill in with interjections.


………… ! You stamped my foot.
Ouch
………… ! If only I had listened.
Oh

………… ! It looks horrible.
Ugh

………… ! I spilled the milk.
Oops

………… ! What a pretty dress!
Wow

Learn Yoga from Animals Summary in English


The lesson aptly shows us how we can do yoga by imitating animals and reptiles. It tells us the benefits and ways one can remain fit and health.Yoga is a physical, mental and spiritual practice attributed mostly to India. Yoga day is celebrated annually on 21st June since 2015. The United Nations General Assembly has declared this day, 21st June to be an international day for yoga. The Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, in his U.N. address suggested the date of 21st June as it is the longest day of the year in the Northern Hemisphere.

2.6 Chasing the Sea Monster

Notes, Textbook Exercise Important Questions and Answers. 

From the passage, find all the words and phrases used to describe the ‘monster’.

Form groups of  Find all the references to time given In the passage. Then make a chart to show the events described in the passage along with the time when they occur.

All night long: The crew stayed on their feet
Near midnight: …………………………………….
At 12.53: …………………………………………….
………….. : …………………………………………….
………….. : …………………………………………….
………….. : …………………………………………….
(lise as many lines as you need.)
 Example: 

All night long: The crew stayed on their feet.
Near midnight: The sea animal disappeared.
At 12.53: A deafening hiss was heard.
Near 2.00 am: The core of a light appeared.
At 6.00 am: The animals electric glow disappeared.
At 7.00 am: A dense morning mist spread.
At 8.00 am: The mist disappeared, the sea animal was seen.
A few moments later: The frigate headed for the animal.
Three-quarters of an hour later: They were not getting closer to the animal.
Next one hour: The frigate gathered speed and so did the sea animal.
At 10.50 pm: The electric light reappeared. 

Form groups of 4-5. Read the following sentences aloud. Using your imagination and with the help of group discussion, write other situations in which the sentences can be used.
The outcome: disappointment and anger.
The hour of battle had sounded
What a chase!
This was our chance, ……..
  • The outcome: disappointment and anger
  • The hour of battle had sounded
  • What a chase!
  • This was our chance
  • The outcome: happiness and relief
  • The outcome: fun and joy
  • The outcome: misery and poverty
  • The hour of decision had arrived
  • The sound of victory was heard
  • What a book!
  • What a personality!
  • What a movie!
  • This was our victory …
  • This was our last straw …
  • This was our fight…
  • Find the different units of measurement mentioned in the passage and get more information about them from the internet. 

Language Study: Transitive and intransitive verbs : We can classify verbs into two types – transitive and intransitive. Some verbs need on object/objects. When a verb has an object, it is a transitive verb. For example, ‘The boy kicked the football’. Here the verb ‘kick’ has ‘the football’ as its object. ‘Give’, ‘cook’, ‘buy’ are transitive verb.
Some verbs do not need any objects. When a verb does not have an object, it is an intransitive verb. For example, ‘We laughed loudly’. The verb ‘laugh’ in this sentence does not have an object. ‘Laugh’, ‘walk’, ‘dy’ are intransitive verbs.

Some verbs can be transitive or intransitive. For example,

Birds fly’. (intransitive) ‘Children fly kites’. (transitive) 
Answer the following questions.

Guess what order the commander must have given.

The order given by the commander must have been to advance slowly towards the monster and to be ready to attack. 

Why did the Abraham Lincoln slow down? The Abraham Lincoln slowed down because

it was
unable to compete with the monster’s speed. 

What is the monster compared to when it disappeared?

The monster is compared to a huge glow-worm when it disappeared. 

What did the deafening hiss resemble?

The deafening hiss resembled the sound made by a water spout expelled with tremendous intensity. 

Who would get $ 500?

The man who would pierce the infernal beast would get $ 500. 

Describe the gunner who accepted the challenge.

The gunner who accepted the challenge was a calm, cool, old and gray bearded man.
What was Ned Land doing?
Ned Land was brandishing his dreadful weapon. 

Reading Skills, Vocabulary and Grammar 

Fill in the blanks.

Let’s wait for daylight and then we’ll play a …………… role.
different 

Unable to compete with the monster’s speed, our frigate, the ………………. slowed down.
Abraham Lincoln 

What is the name of the narrator?

The name of the narrator is Professor Aronnax. 

What is the name of the ship?

The name of the ship is ‘Abraham Lincoln’.
At what time is this event taking place?
This event is taking place sometime near midnight. 

Vocabulary:

Give two words as phrases used to describe ‘monster’ in this passage.
fear some creature, cetacea

The animal mimicked the frigate. (End with ’… the animal’)

The frigate was mimicked by the animal. 

No one thought of sleeping. (Make it affirmative)

Everyone remained awake. 

The animal mimicked the frigate. (Change into interrogative)

Didn’t the animal mimic the frigate?

Pick out the verb and state whether it is transitive or intransitive. 


Rama rang the bell loudly.
The bell rang loudly.
The baby sleeps on a bed.
The birds fly in the air.
Close the door.
He wrote a letter to his friend. 

rang – transitive verb
rang – intransitive verb
sleeps – intransitive verb
fly – intransitive verb
dose – transitive verb
wrote – transitive verb

Write whether True or False. 

We stayed on the alert until night and were getting ready for action.
False 

The mist was very dense.
True. 

What can the blunderbusses do?

The blunderbusses can launch harpoons as far as a mile. 

Grammar:

Ned had a dreadful weapon. (Add a question tag)

Ned had a dreadful weapon, didn’t he? 

Pick out two abstract nouns from the extract.

Disappointment, anger. 

Personal Response:

Do you like travelling on sea? Why?
No, I do not like travelling on sea. I don’t know how to swim and I am very scared of drowning. 

Read the following passage and do the activities. 

Fill in the blanks.

………… stayed at his post, harpoon in hand.
Ned Land
The animal is faster than the ………….. .
Abraham Lincoln 

Explain why the author uses the words “what a chase!”.

It was an exciting chase no doubt. The author says that the excitement shook his very being. The animal was so smart, it let the frigate get a little closer to it and then picked up speed and kept its distance. The animal was playing tricks with the frigate. 

Pick out the words from the extract that mean the following.

i. person who fires the cannon
ii. moved faster
Answer:
i. cannoneer
ii. gathered speed 

Give the meanings of the following.

i. harpooner
ii. mate
Answers
i. person who handles the harpoon
ii. assistant 

what a chase no i can’t describe the excitement that shook my very being (Punctuate)

What a chase! No, It can’t describe the excitement that shook my very being. 

The cannoneer fired a shot. (Add a question tag)

The cannoneer fired a shot, didn’t he? 

Do as directed.

There was a mighty explosion. (Pick out the verb and state its kind)
was – transitive verb.
The monster seemed motionless. (Frame a ’Wh1 question so as to get the underlined words as the answer)
Who seemed motionless? 

Barely twenty feet separated him from the motionless animal. (Pick out the adjectives from the sentence)

Twenty, motionless 

The electric light suddenly went out. (Identify the part of speech of the underlined word)

Suddenly – adverb 

Pick out the verb and state whether it is transitive or intransitive.


The hunter killed the wolf.
killed – transitive verb 

Leena saw a monster.
saw – transitive verb

Rains spoilt the picnic

Spoilt– transitive verb


The baby cried loudly.
cried – intransitive verb 

The bird flew away.
flew – intransitive verb 

Writing Skills

Write an essay on ‘A Sea Journey’.
A sea journey is something I had never experienced. I used to look at the majestic sea and wonder what it would be like to travel by sea. I got the chance of a life time to travel on a ship. 

The ship was filled with people from different states of India. At the beginning all was wonderful, the people, the sea, the sky, the weather. I was told that the journey would take many on board. But as time passed, the journey which I felt would be a pleasant one, wasn’t all that pleasant. There was nothing to see except water, water and more water. The movement of the ship on the water gave me a nauseating/nauseous feeling. 

I was praying and hoping for the journey to end. At last after about eight long hours we touched land. I was so happy to be on firm landing once again. The journey by sea was an experience I wouldn’t want to repeat. This journey by sea was my first and last one. 

Chasing the Sea Monster Summary in English

The lesson ‘Chasing the Sea Monster’ is an extract from the novel ‘20,000 Leagues under the Sea’ written by Jules Verne. The story in this extract is about spotting a mysterious sea monster by the inmates on a warship. The story revolves round the relentless chase between the warship (frigate) and the sea monster. 

The warship (frigate) named Abraham Lincoln captained by Commander Farragut along with Professor Pierre Aronnax, a French marine biologist and narrator of the story, a master harpoonist Ned Land and other crew members chase the sea monster and in the end Ned Land succeeds in hitting the sea monster. The collision between the frigate and the sea monster is so hideous that Commander Farragut, Professor Pierre Aronnax and Ned Land are hurled into the sea.The lesson ‘Chasing The Sea Monster7 is a science fiction written by Jules Verne, a French writer. He is known as the ‘Father of Science Fiction’. This is a passage, from his novel ‘20,000 Leagues under the Sea’. He describes how people on a ship think of the submarine as an animal and try to chase and hunt it.

2.7 Great Scientists

Textbook Questions and Answers

1. Write what is implied in the following sentences.

But few know his inspirational life story, which is all about courage and fighting against the odds.
(What does it tell you about Faraday’s life?)

Faraday was bom into an extremely poor family. He had a speech defect which ended his formal education. He wanted to become a scientist. He came across a lot of difficulties and failures but through courage and determination, he achieved fame and name.

Even then Davy did not have much hope for Faraday.
(What do the words ‘even then’ suggest?)

Davy hired Faraday as his Secretary. Faraday worked relentlessly and became indespensible to Davy. ‘Even then’ suggests that even though Faraday did everything to prove himself, Davy did not believe that Faraday was capable of doing anything great.

People started telling Davy that of all his discoveries, the best was Faraday himself.
(What does it suggest about Davy’s work?)

The line suggests that the people felt that Davy had made discoveries which were good but Faraday’s discoveries stood out in comparison to Davy’s work.

2. Break the passage into convenient smaller sections. Give sub-headings or titles to each section.

1st para: Michael Faraday, an inspiration
2nd para: Unhappy childhood
3rd para: Reading, an obsession
4th para: Twist in life
5th para: Magic of Electricity
6th para: Play of destiny
7th para: Fruits of labour
8th para: Revolution for mankind
9th para: A scientist is born
10th para: Challenges in life
11th para: Magic of magnets
12th para: A legend is born
13th para: Failure – a stepping stone to success
14th para: Obstacles – a challenge
15th para: Luck smiles again
16th para: Believe in yourself

3. List the different gadgets and instruments mentioned in the passage. Find more information about them (at least 3), using the Internet.

Gadgets and Instruments:
Fan, air conditioners, sewing machines, power tools, cars, trains, aeroplane engines, induction motors, telescopes, Bavarian glass, microscopes, electrical generators, light bulbs. Now you add to the list of gadgets and instruments. You can add your own too.

1. Microscope: It is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), a Dutch scientist, who in the late 17th century became the first man to make and use a real microscope. All microscopes came with a lens that can magnify 40 times the normal size.
2.  Electrical generator: It was invented by Michael Faraday in 1831. It is a device that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. Sources of mechanical energy include steam, turbines, gas turbines, water turbines, etc. It works on the principle of electromagnetic induction.
3. Fan: A fan is a machine used to create flow within a fluid, typically a gas such as air. The fan consists of a rotating arrangement of blades which act on the fluid. The fan was invented by Schuyler Skaats Wheeler in 1882.

4. Find out more about the following scientists with the help of the internet.

(a) Michael Faraday
(b) Humphry Davy
(c) Thomos Edison
(d) James Maxwell

(a) Michael Faraday: Michael Faraday (1791-1867) was an English (British) Scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. He was highly influenced by Humphry Davy and William Thomas Brande. He had notable awards to his credit, a few being Royal Medal, Copley Medal, Rumford Medal, Albert Medal.

(b) Humphry Davy: Humphry Davy (1778-1829) was a British scientist. It was he who found out that the inhalation of nitrous oxide produced surprising results, it came to be known as the laughing gas. He was awarded a medal by Napoleon and he identified the element iodine for the first time. He is remembered for his discoveries of sodium, potassium, calcium.

(c) Thomas Alva Edison: Thomas Alva Edison (1847-1931) an American inventor and businessman, has been described as America’s greatest inventor. He invented the photograph in 1877 because of which he came to be known as ‘The Wizard of Monto Park’. Thomas Edison had hearing problems during his childhood which persisted. The phonograph was the first machine that could record the sound of someone’s voice and play it back.

Edison recited the nursery rhyme ‘Mary had a little lamb’ and the phonograph played the words back to him. This was invented by a man whose hearing was poor and thought himself as deaf. It was Edison who designed a system of power plants. He has got 1093 patents to his credit. Many awards to his credit. Some of them are Franklin Medal, Albert Medal, Technical Grammy Award, etc.

(d) James Clerk Maxwell: James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics His most notable work was to formulate the classical theory of electromagnetic radiation. He is known as the Father of Modern Physics. His other contributions included producing the first colour photograph taken in 1861 and many more. He earned an array of awards. To name a few, Rumford Medal, Keith and Hopkins prize, Adams prize, etc.

5. Language Study:

Subject and predicate: A word or a phrase in a sentence that shows who or what does the action, is the subject. In the following sentences, the underlined part is the subject.
The baby is laughing.
The glass fell from the table.

The predicate is the part of a sentence that tells us something about the subject. The underlined parts of the following sentences show the predicates in them.
The baby is laughing.
The glass fell from the table
Guess the meaning of these lines

Reading became his obsession.

He could think of nothing else but reading.

Electricity became a lifelong fascination
Electricity enchanted him throughout his life. Electricity was his passion throughout his life.

Why do you think Faraday’s friend gave him a free ticket to Davy’s programme?

Faraday’s friend gave him a free ticket to Davy’s programme because he knew about Faraday’s fascination for electricity and also that he could not afford the ticket.

Give one example each to show that:

Faraday was a good pupil.

Davy tried to find out how an electric current could be applied continuously, but failed to figure it out. He asked Faraday to try his hand at it. Faraday set to work and within a few days, solved the problem.

Davy was not a good mentor.

Davy was not happy at Faraday’s achievement but was jealous of Faraday.

An induction motor is a commonly used electrical machine. What examples of its uses are given here?

The examples of electrical machine in which induction motor is commonly used are:

fans
air conditioning
sewing machines
photographs
power tools
cars
trains
aeroplane engines.

Why were Faraday’s drawings not accepted?

Faraday’s drawing were without any mathematical equations as he did not know much about advanced mathematics and lacked formal education. Faraday’s drawing without mathematical equation could not be understood and so his drawings were not accepted.

Does it mean they were wrong?

No, Faraday’s drawings were not wrong. It lacked mathematical equations because of which it could not be understood.

State whether true or false.

i. Faraday’s Laws are about electricity.
ii. Faraday did not suffer speech defect as an adult.
Answer:
i. True
ii. True.

Where was Michael Faraday born?

Michael Faraday was born into a poverty- stricken family in a dirty London suburb.

What came to an end when Michael Faraday was twelve?

Michael Faraday’s formal education came to an end when he was twelve.

What were the odds against Faraday in his childhood?

Faraday was born into an extremely poor family. He suffered from speech defect as a child. He could not even pronounce his own name. Other children laughed at him and even his teachers did not help him. when he was twelve, his mother was forced to pull him out from school. This put an end to his formal education.

Give the meaning if the words

‘mentor’

A wise and trusted counsellor or teacher.

‘reverse engineer it’

Taking apart an object and analyzing its components and workings in detail.

Give the noun form:

(a) inventor
(b) friend
(c) mysterious
(d) agree

Answer:
(a) invention
(b)friendship
(c) mystery
(d) agreement

Give the verb form:

(a) explosion
(b) comprehensive
(c) revolution
(d) success
(e) inspirational
(f) education
(g) modem
(h) courage
Answer:

(a) explode
(b) comprehend
(c) revolve
(d) succeed
(e) inspire
(f) educate
(g) modernize
(h) encourage

Give the adverb form:

(a) difficult
(b) secret
(c) random
(d) invisible
Answer:
(a) difficulty
(b) secretly
(c) randomly
(d) invisibly

Give the adjective form:

(a) communicate
(b) education
(c) experiment
(d) succeed
Answer:
(a) communicative
(b) educative
(c) experimental
(d) successful

Michael Faraday is regarded as one of the most distinguished scientists and inventors! (Add question tag)

Michael Faraday is regarded as one of the most distinguished scientists and inventors isn’t it?

Do you like reading inspirational stories?

Yes, I do like reading inspirational stories. Reading inspirational stories motivates me to do something in life so that I too can gain fame and name while trying to make the world a better place to live in.

State whether the following statements are true or false.

Faraday succeeded Davy as the head of the laboratory after Davy’s death.
Answer:
True

He was so engrossed in the lecture that he applaud with the rest of the crowd.
Answer:
False

What was the subject of Davy’s lecture?

The subject of Davy’s lecture was ‘The Mysterious force of Electric Fluid’.

What happens when an electric current is applied to a wire?

When an electric current is applied to a wire, it causes that wire to behave like a magnet.

Why did Davy choose Faraday as his assistant?

Davy was temporarily blinded by a chemical explosion which took place inside his lab. He needed an assistant with an excellent memory. He was reminded of Faraday and decided to make him his assistant.

Was Davy fair in his treatment of Faraday?

No, Davy was unfair in his treatment of Faraday. He looked down upon Faraday because of his low social status and education. He told Faraday not to aspire for too.much and to stick to book-binding.

How did Faraday respond to that treatment?

Davy’s treatment did not dishearten Faraday. Faraday was relentless. He worked day and night and learnt as much as he could and became indispensible to Davy.

Give the noun forms of the following.

i. comprehensive
ii. aspire
Answer:
i. comprehension
ii. aspiration.

Give the adverb form:

i. difficult
ii. invisible
Answers-
i. difficulty
ii. invisibly.

Destiny had a strange plan in store for him. (Use a question tag)

Destiny had a strange plan in store for him, didn’t it?

What actions and thoughts of Faraday show that he was inspired by Davy?

The actions and thoughts of Faraday which shows he was inspired by Davy are as follows:

He kept taking notes.
He was so engrossed in the lecture that he forgot to applaud.
He bound the notes he had taken down into a book, hoping to gift it to Davy.
He was inspired to become a great scientist and Davy became his role model.
Faraday thought that it would be wonderful if Davy became his mentor.

Say whether the following statements are true or false.

Faraday succeeded Davy in 1829.
Answer:
True

In 1830 Faraday developed memory loss which continued for the rest of his life.
Answer:
False

When did Faraday develop memory loss?

Faraday developed memory loss in 1840.

Give a sub-heading or title to the extract.

‘Faraday – a Legend is born’.

Find any 4 verbs from the above extract.

died, succeeded, made, moved.

Find any 2 proper nouns from the above extract.

Faraday and Davy.

Faraday was now a legend. (Add a question tag)

Faraday was now a legend, wasn’t he?

Write the idea behind an electrical generator.

Faraday noticed that if he moved a magnet, it would produce electrical current, converting motion into electricity. This is how the electrical generator came into being.

How far did Faraday convert the reminder of his first major failure into an instrument of great success?

Faraday used the reminder of his first major failure, the Bavarian glass, to show the concept of polarisation. He thus converted it into an instrument of great success.

What complicated experiment did Faraday begin after he developed a memory loss?

After developing a memory loss, Faraday began a complicated experiment to prove that light was closely related to electricity and magnetism.

Do as directed.

Pick out the subject and predicate.

A wealthy, educated physicist, he met.

Subject: He
Predicate: met a wealthy, educated physicist

He was unable to explain.

Subject: He
Predicate: was unable to explain

The induction motor spurred a revolution.

Subject: The induction motor
Predicate: spurred a revolution

At thirteen, however, he stated working.

Subject: He
Predicate: started working at thirteen

One day he came across a book on electricity.

Subject: He
Predicate: came across a book on electricity one day.

Other children laughed at him.

Subject: Other children
Predicate: laughed at him


Remember: If there is no subject, put a ‘you’ in the subjects place.
e.g. Shut the door.
Subject: You Predicate: Shut the door

Other children laughed at him. (Add a question tag)

Other children laughed at him. didn’t they?

He started reading it. (State the kind of verb – Transitive/ Intransitive)

started – transitive verb reading – transitive verb

Other children laughed at him. (Begin with’He…’)

He was laughed at by other children.

Faraday solved the problem. (End with ‘…Faraday’)

The problem was solved by Faraday.

Faraday was now a legend. (Make it interrogative)

Wasn’t Faraday now a legend?

James Maxwell was a wealthy, educated physicist. (Frame a ‘Wh’ question so as to get the underlined word as the answer)

Who was James Maxwell?

Get me a glass of water. (Separate the subject and predicate)

Subject-You
Predicate – Get me a glass of water.

He undertook it as challenges and opportunities. (Identify the part of speech of the underlined words)

challenges, opportunities – nouns.
Writing Skills

Find out from the internet an inspiring story.

Answer:
Lionel Messi, bor in 1987, into a middle-class family who lived in Argentina. He grew up in a football-loving family. He developed a passion for football at an early age. At 5, he showed great skills at a club coached by his father. It was strange to see that he was way too short when compared to the boys of his age. Wherever he went he was the shortest of all.

This did not stop him from playing. At the age of 11, he was diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency and had to take medical assistance. Every night he had to take an injection in his legs for 3 years. His family could not afford the treatment for long. Though he was a great asset for his soccer club, they refused to pay his bills. Lady Luck smiled on him and his family. At 13, he got an offer from F. C. Barcelona that they would pay for his treatment if he played for them.

His family moved to Spain with no money or job, all in the hope that his treatment will make him big enough to play soccer. At 17, despite being injury prone he became the youngest player in F. C. Barcelona to score a goal and became a star performer. Today, Lionel Messi is known as one of the greatest footballers of all time. He has won the most Ballon d’Ors in the world. The FIFA Ballon d’Or (Golden Ball) also known as the EuropeaHis family moved to Spain with no money or job, all in the hope that his treatment will make him big enough to play soccer. At 17, despite being injury prone he became the youngest player in F. C. Barcelona to score a goal and became a star performer. Today, Lionel Messi is known as one of the greatest footballers of all time. He has won the most Ballon d’Ors in the world. The FIFA Ballon d’Or (Golden Ball) also known as the European Footballer of the year, was an annual association football award presented to the world’s best male player.

Messi’s story teaches us ‘Never lose hope

You never know what tomorrow might bring. Keep believing in yourself’

Great Scientists Summary in English

The lesson ‘Great Scientists’ is an inspirational and motivational lesson. The story about Michael Faraday and his journey through all odds in life to become one of the most distinguished scientists and inventors of modern times is really an eye-opener to all those who give up easily when faced with a difficult situation. Perseverance and a will to win will surely reach you to the height of success is described in this story. This is a story all teens must-read.The lesson ‘Great Scientists’ is taken from the introduction to ‘Reignited’ by A. P. J. Abdul Kalam and Srijan Pal Singh.sh..



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